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Chronic Hepatitis

  • Paul Y. KwoEmail author
  • Nimy John
Chapter

Abstract

Chronic viral hepatitis is defined as persistent inflammation of the liver in an identifiable hepatotropic viral (most commonly hepatitis B or C virus) infection persisting for 6 months or longer after acute infection [1]. Patients with chronic viral hepatitis may be asymptomatic or may complain of general fatigue, mild right hypochondoralgia, loss of appetite, nausea, and weakness. Many patients are diagnosed as having chronic viral hepatitis during routine physical with biochemical examination revealing abnormal liver chemistries, typically mild elevation of serum aminotransferases. Occasionally, patients may have flares or exacerbation of necroinflammatory activity in the liver, particularly with hepatitis B [2]. Less common causes of chronic viral hepatitis include hepatitis B/D coinfection and rarely chronic hepatitis E in immunosuppressed patients [3, 4].

Keywords

Chronic hepatitis B Chronic hepatitis C Chronic hepatitis D Chronic hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis Fibrosis Cirrhosis 

Abbreviations

AIH

Autoimmune hepatitis

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

APRI

AST-to-platelet ratio index

DAAs

Direct-acting antiviral agents

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

HBcAg

Hepatitis B core antigen

HBsAg

Hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HDV

Hepatitis D virus

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

RNA

Ribonucleic acid

SVR

Sustained viral response

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CaliforniaUSA

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