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Acute Liver Failure

  • Seiichi Mawatari
  • Yoshinori Harada
  • Masaki Iwai
  • Paul Y. Kwo
  • Akio IdoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as severe liver dysfunction characterized by an elevated prothrombin time with encephalopathy occurring within 8 weeks after onset of the first symptom without a history of chronic liver disease. Pathologically, ALF is characterized by a massive cell death and the suppression of the regenerative capacity of the liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for patients with ALF, in addition to conservative medical management treating specific causes and supporting multiple organ failure. Several new therapeutic modalities, including liver regeneration medicine and anti-apoptotic or cell protective drugs, are currently being investigated.

Keywords

Acute liver failure Hepatic encephalopathy Liver regeneration Liver transplantation Hemodiafiltration Plasmapheresis 

Abbreviations

ALF

Acute liver failure

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

HAV

Hepatitis A virus

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HEV

Hepatitis E virus

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

HVP

High-volume plasmapheresis

IL

Interleukin

MARS

Molecular adsorbent recirculating system

OLT

Orthotopic liver transplantation

TGF-α

Transforming growth factor α

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seiichi Mawatari
    • 1
  • Yoshinori Harada
    • 2
  • Masaki Iwai
    • 3
  • Paul Y. Kwo
    • 4
  • Akio Ido
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.KagoshimaJapan
  2. 2.KyotoJapan
  3. 3.KyotoJapan
  4. 4.CaliforniaUSA

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