Acute Hepatitis

  • Yoshinori HaradaEmail author
  • Masaki Iwai


Acute viral hepatitis is sporadic or endemic mainly due to hepatitis virus. It is spread by the oral-fecal route or parenterally by blood transfusion, intravenous drug abuse, and sexual intercourse. The hepatitis virus is defined as a virus that has a greater affinity for the liver and produces a characteristic inflammatory reaction in the liver. The virus includes types A, B, C, D, and E. Types A is transmitted via the oral-fecal route, whereas types B, C, and D are transmitted by parenteral route. Type E is mostly transmitted through the fecal-oral route, but it can be transmitted via blood transfusions (Table 3.1). Systemic infections of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, adenovirus, and rubella rarely produce acute concomitant hepatitis. EBV causes hepatitis in the acute phase of systemic infection; and acute hepatitis due to herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, or rubella occurs in immunosuppressed patients and young children.


Hepatitis virus Fecal-oral route Parenteral route Jaundice Serological indicator 





Disseminated intravascular coagulation


EBV nuclear antigen


Epstein-Barr virus


Hepatitis A virus


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatitis C virus


Hepatitis D virus


Hepatitis E virus


Herpes simplex virus


Anti-HAV IgM antibody


Viral-capsid antigen



Prof. Paul Y. Kwo was a coauthor of the first edition of this chapter.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.KyotoJapan
  2. 2.KyotoJapan

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