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Laboratory Tests in Liver Diseases

  • Yoshio SumidaEmail author
  • Yoshihiro Kamada
  • Masaki Iwai
  • Paul Y. Kwo
  • Masashi Yoneda
Chapter

Abstract

Laboratory tests for evaluating liver diseases are essential. This chapter reviews routine biochemical tests and disease-specific laboratory tests. Algorithms for assessing acute and chronic hepatobiliary enzyme elevation are suggested. The degree of hepatic fibrosis has been established to be the most significant determinant of mortality/morbidity in chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, but it has several drawbacks such as invasiveness, cost, and risk. We here review noninvasive fibrosis parameters, including hepatic fibrosis markers, and several scoring systems. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common liver disease all over the world. Diagnostic algorithm for NAFLD is also established to detect severe fibrosis (stage 3/4). Severity of cirrhosis was usually assessed by Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and ALBI grade. We also discuss the significance of tumor markers such as α-fetoprotein (AFP), fucosylated AFP, and des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin in order to detect liver cancer and evaluate its treatment efficacy.

Keywords

Hepatic fibrosis NAFLD FIB4 index Type 4 collagen 7S Pro-C3 Child-Pugh score MELD score ALBI grade AFP DCP 

Abbreviations

AA

Aromatic amino acid

AASLD

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

ACA

Anti-centromere antibodies

ACG

American College of Gastroenterology

AFP

α-fetoprotein

AFP-L3

Fucosylated AFP

AIH

Autoimmune hepatitis

ALBI

Albumin-bilirubin

ALD

Alcoholic liver disease

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

ANA

Antinuclear antibodies

anti-LKM

Antibodies to liver/kidney microsome

APASL

Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver

APRI

AST to platelet ratio index

ARFI

Acoustic radiation force impulse

ASMA

Anti-smooth muscle antibodies

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

AAR

AST to ALT ratio

BCAA

Branched-chain amino acid

BTR

BCAA/tyrosine ratio

CHB

Chronic hepatitis B

CHC

Chronic hepatitis C

CK

Creatine kinase

CLD

Chronic liver disease

DCP

Des-γ-carboxyprothrombin

DIC

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

DILI

Drug-induced liver injury

EASL

European Association for the Study of the Liver

ECM

Extracellular matrix

ELF score

Enhanced liver fibrosis score

FIB4 index

Fibrosis-4 index

GGT

γ-glutamyl transferase

GPC3

Glypican-3

GPI

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HSC

Hepatic stellate cell

HSPG

Heparan sulfate proteoglycan

ICG

Indocyanine green

ICP

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

IFN-γ

Interferon-γ

IgA

Immunoglobulin A

IgE

Immunoglobulin E

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

IgM

Immunoglobulin M

INR

International normalized ratio

IL-6

Interleukin-6

JSH

Japanese Society of Hepatology

LCA

Lens culinaris agglutinin A

LDH

Lactate dehydrogenase

LSEC

Liver sinusoidal endothelial cell

M2BP

Mac-2 binding protein

M2BPGi

Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer

MELD

Model for end-stage liver disease

MRE

Magnetic resonance elastography

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NAFLD

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

PIIINP

Procollagen type III N-terminal peptide

PBC

Primary biliary cholangitis

PDD

Pulse dye densitometer

Pro-C3

N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen

PSC

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

PT

Prothrombin time

SRCR

Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain

SVR

Sustained virological response

T4C7S

Type 4 collagen 7S

TIMP-1

Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-1

TIPS

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

UDP

Uridine diphosphate

WFA

Wisteria floribunda agglutinin

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshio Sumida
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoshihiro Kamada
    • 2
  • Masaki Iwai
    • 3
  • Paul Y. Kwo
    • 4
  • Masashi Yoneda
    • 1
  1. 1.AichiJapan
  2. 2.OsakaJapan
  3. 3.KyotoJapan
  4. 4.CaliforniaUSA

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