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Liver Tumors II: Malignant Tumors of the Liver

  • Naoshi NishidaEmail author
  • Ryuichi Kita
  • Kenichi Miyoshi
  • Masahiko Koda
  • Masaki Iwai
  • Arief A. Suriawinata
Chapter

Abstract

Primary liver tumors originate from hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and mesenchymal cells (Table 17.1). Among liver tumors, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common; the majority of HCC develops as a result of chronic liver diseases that cause severe hepatocyte damage and regeneration. Chronic inflammation results in the formation of regenerative nodules as well as in the development of HCC through induction of many genetic/epigenetic alterations. Practitioners should attempt to differentiate HCC from benign and other malignant tumors and to treat it accordingly. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or C viruses (HCV) could reduce the risk of HCC emergence related to hepatitis virus [1, 2].

Keywords

Malignant liver tumor Hepatocellular carcinoma Cholangiocellular carcinoma Liver sarcoma Diagnosis Treatment Tumor marker Imagining Mutation 

Abbreviations

AFP

α-Fetoprotein

ARID1

AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A

BCLC

Barcelona clinic liver cancer

CCC

Cholangiocellular carcinoma

CEUS

Contract-enhanced US

CK

Cytokeratin

CoCC

Cholangiolocellular carcinoma

CT

Computed tomography

CTA

CT arteriography

CTAP

CT arterial portography

EZH2

Zeste homolog 2

Gd-EOB-DTPA

Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid

Gd-EOB-MRI

Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI

HAIC

Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

HCC

Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

NEC

Neuroendocrine cancer

NEN

Neuroendocrine neoplasm

NET

Neuroendocrine tumor

OATP

Organic anion transporting polypeptide

PEI

Percutaneous ethanol injection

PIVKA-II

Prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II

PS

Performance status

PTC

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

RFA

Radiofrequency ablation

SOL

Space-occupying lesion

TACE

Transarterial chemoembolization

TET1

Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1

US

Ultrasonography

Notes

Acknowledgment

We are grateful to Prof. Alex Y. Chang for constructive advice for first edition of this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naoshi Nishida
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ryuichi Kita
    • 2
  • Kenichi Miyoshi
    • 3
  • Masahiko Koda
    • 3
  • Masaki Iwai
    • 4
  • Arief A. Suriawinata
    • 5
  1. 1.OsakaJapan
  2. 2.OsakaJapan
  3. 3.TottoriJapan
  4. 4.KyotoJapan
  5. 5.New HampshireUSA

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