Anatomy and Function

  • Masaki IwaiEmail author
  • Takashi Kojima
  • Arief A. Suriawinata


The liver weighing 1200–1500 g is the largest organ in the human adult and occupies about 2% of body weight. There are two anatomical lobes in the liver, right and left, with the right lobe six times in volume than the left lobe. The right and left lobes are separated anteriorly by the falciform ligament, posteriorly by ligamentum venosum, and inferiorly by ligamentum teres. The Couinaud classification [1] defines eight segments of the liver, and the Bismuth classification [2] divides it into four sectors; they are subdivided into right anterior (V and VIII), right posterior (VI and VII), left medial (IV), or left lateral (II and III) segment and caudate lobe (I) (Fig. 1.1).



Alpha fetoprotein


cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate


cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate




Epidermal growth factor receptor


Graft-versus-host disease


Hepatitis C virus




Junctional adhesion molecules


Postsynaptic density 95; Discs large, zonula occludens


Protein kinase C


Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Scavenger receptor BI


Tumor necrosis factor


Zonula occludens


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaki Iwai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takashi Kojima
    • 2
  • Arief A. Suriawinata
    • 3
  1. 1.KyotoJapan
  2. 2.SapporoJapan
  3. 3.New HampshireUSA

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