Magnetic Levitation Forces of Superconductors

  • Chan-Joong Kim


The magnetic levitation force (F) of a superconductor is dependent on its manufacturing process and the specification of a magnet used for the measurement. The F of the melt processed superconductors is very large. For example, the F of the single-grain bulk superconductors measured at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) is as large as a hundred newton (N), depending on the dimension of a permanent magnet. The weight of several tons can be levitated using the superconductors and magnets. This chapter present the method of the measurement of the magnetic levitation force of superconductors at 77 K and the magnetic field trapped in the superconductors. The magnetization process of superconductors using the mixed state of a Type 2 superconductor is described.


  1. 1.
    Kim K-M, Park S-D, Jun S-H, Ko TK, Kim C-J (2012) Simple die pressing for making artificial holes in single-grain Gd1.5Ba2Cu3O7−y superconductors. Supercond Sci Technol 25:105016.
  2. 2.
    Yang WM, Chao XX, Bian XB, Liu P, Feng Y, Zhang PX, Zhou L (2003) The effect of magnet size on the levitation forces and attractive force of single-domain YBCO bulk superconductor. Supercond Sci Technol 16:789CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murakami M, Oyama T, Fujimoto H, Taguchi T, Gotoh S, Shiohara Y, Koshizuka N, Tanaka S (1990) Large levitation force due to flux pinning in YBaCuO superconductors fabricated by melt-powder-melt-growth process. Jpn J Appl Phys 29(11):L1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim CJ, Lee HG, Kuk IH, Chang IS, Rim CS, Han PS, Won DY (1990) The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition in YBa2(Cu1-xFex)3O7−y. J Mater Sci 25:2165Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jin S, Tiefel TH, Sherwood RC, van Dover RB, Davis ME, Kammlott GW, Fastnacht RA (1988) Melt-textured growth of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-δ with high transport Jc at 77 K. Phys Rev B 37(13):7850Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marnel S, Wang J, Monoy I, Delare MP, Provost J, Desgardin G (1997) Top-seeding melt texture growth of single-domain superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ pellets. Supercond Sci Technol 10:147Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shi Y, Namburi DK, Zhao W, Durrell JH, Dennis AR, Cardwell DA (2016) The use of buffer pellets to pseudo hot seed (RE)-Ba-Cu-O-(Ag) single grain bulk superconductors. Supercond Sci Technol 29:015010. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jee YA, Kim C-J, Sung T-H, Hong G-W (2000) Top-seeded melt growth of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor with multiseeding. Supercond Sci Technol 13:195CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chan-Joong Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Neutron Utilization Research DivisionKorea Atomic Energy Research InstituteDaejeonKorea (Republic of)

Personalised recommendations