Application of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Reaction Parameters for Grafting of Cellulosic Fiber

  • Aanchal MittalEmail author
  • Sangeeta Garg
  • Shailendra Bajpai
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 30)


In this work, chemical modification of barley husk (BH) was done with palmitic acid to render its hydrophobic property. Optimization of the reaction parameters for grafting of barley husk was performed using response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD). Different process parameters were optimized at three levels: reaction time (2.5–5 h), reaction temperature (35–55 °C), solvent ratio (0, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1, 1), and monomer concentration (4.75–11.09 mol/L × 10−3). Prediction of the optimum reaction parameters was done by producing a quadratic polynomial equation in order to find the maximum value of % graft yield. The adequacy of the regression modeling was tested by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). It was observed that the most effective parameter for chemical modification of barley husk was reaction temperature. The maximum value of % graft yield was 41.53% at reaction time 4.37 h; reaction temperature 40.02 °C; solvent ratio 3:1; and monomer concentration 9.48 mol/L × 10−3. The characterization of the modified barley husk was done by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface micrographs of grafted barley husk showed that surface of barley husk became rough after grafting of palmitic acid over the cellulosic backbone.


Grafting Optimization Response surface methodology Regression modeling Infrared spectroscopy 


  1. Bajpai S, Gupta SK, Dey A, Jha MK, Bajpai V, Joshi S, Gupta A (2012) Application of central composite design approach for removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution using weakly anionic resin: modeling, optimization, and study of interactive variables. J Hazard Mater 227:436–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bharti S, Mishra S, Sen G (2013) Ceric ion initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted oatmeal: its application as flocculant for wastewater treatment. Carbohyd Polym 93(2):528–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Garg S, Jana AK (2011) Characterization and evaluation of acylated starch with different acyl groups and degrees of substitution. Carbohyd Polym 83(4):1623–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Huang F, Wu X, Yu Y, Lu Y, Chen Q (2017) Acylation of cellulose nanocrystals with acids/trifluoroacetic anhydride and properties of films from esters of CNCs. Carbohyd Polym 155:525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jawaid MHPS, Khalil HA (2011) Cellulosic/synthetic fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: a review. Carbohyd Polym 86(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kaith BS, Kalia S (2008) Graft copolymerization of MMA onto flax under different reaction conditions: a comparative study. Express Polym Lett 2(2):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Khoathane MC, Vorster OC, Sadiku ER (2008) Hemp fiber-reinforced 1-pentene/polypropylene copolymer: the effect of fiber loading on the mechanical and thermal characteristics of the composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 27(14):1533–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kohli D, Garg S, Jana AK, Maiti M (2017) Synthesis of graft copolymers for green composite films and optimization of reaction parameters using Taguchi (L16) orthogonal array. Indian Chem Eng 59(2):136–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mittal A, Garg S, Kohli D, Maiti M, Jana AK, Bajpai S (2016) Effect of cross linking of PVA/starch and reinforcement of modified barley husk on the properties of composite films. Carbohyd Polym 151:926–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Majeed K, Jawaid M, Hassan A, Bakar AA, Khalil HA, Salema AA, Inuwa I (2013) Potential materials for food packaging from nanoclay/natural fibres filled hybrid composites. Mater Des 46:391–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Modibbo UU, Aliyu BA, Nkafamiya II (2009) The effect of mercerization media on the physical properties of local plant bast fibres. Int J Phys Sci 4(11):698–704Google Scholar
  12. Morent R, De Geyter N, Verschuren J, De Clerck K, Kiekens P, Leys C (2008) Non-thermal plasma treatment of textiles. Surf Coat Technol 202(14):3427–3449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nguyen HL, Jo YK, Cha M, Cha YJ, Yoon DK, Sanandiya ND, Hwang DS (2016) Mussel-inspired anisotropic nanocellulose and silver nanoparticle composite with improved mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and antibacterial activity. Polymers 8(3):102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Priya B, Gupta VK, Pathania D, Singha AS (2014) Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable starch/PVA composite films reinforced with cellulosic fibre. Carbohyd Polym 109:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ray D, Das M, Mitra D (2009) Influence of alkali treatment on creep properties and crystalinity of jute fibres. BioResources 4(2):730–739Google Scholar
  16. Ryu MH, Park J, Oh DX, Hwang SY, Jeon H, Im SS, Jegal J (2017) Precisely controlled two-step synthesis of cellulose-graft-poly (l-lactide) copolymers: effects of graft chain length on thermal behavior. Polym Degrad Stab 142:226–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Singha AS, Rana RK (2012) Functionalization of cellulosic fibers by graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile and ethyl acrylate from their binary mixtures. Carbohyd Polym 87(1):500–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Teli MD, Sheikh J (2012) Antibacterial and acid and cationic dyeable bamboo cellulose (rayon) fabric on grafting. Carbohyd Polym 88(4):1281–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Thakur VK, Thakur MK, Gupta RK (2013) Rapid synthesis of graft copolymers from natural cellulose fibers. Carbohyd Polym 98(1):820–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yu HY, Chen GY, Wang YB, Yao JM (2015) A facile one-pot route for preparing cellulose nanocrystal/zinc oxide nanohybrids with high antibacterial and photocatalytic activity. Cellulose 22(1):261–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aanchal Mittal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sangeeta Garg
    • 1
  • Shailendra Bajpai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringDr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia

Personalised recommendations