Geotechnical Design of Underground Infrastructure—Outlining the Observational Approach

  • Florian KrennEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 29)


Tunneling for infrastructure has got a long tradition, and has become more and more important in the last years in India. The topographical features of India—the Himalayas as the best example—and the growth of urban spaces make tunneling an important component in many infrastructure projects, thus putting geotechnics for underground works into a key role. Geotechnics for tunneling needs therefore to be approached in a comprehensive manner, from investigation, ground description, and subsequent design to the implementation. The observational approach is in the opinion of the author the first choice for economical geotechnical works, with different depths of application depending on the project boundary conditions and risk appreciation.


Tunneling Observational approach NATM Risk management 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geoconsult India Pvt. Ltd.GurgaonIndia

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