Advertisement

Review on Compaction and Shearing-Induced Breakage of Granular Material

  • Miriam Tawk
  • Buddhima IndraratnaEmail author
  • Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn
  • Ana Heitor
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 29)

Abstract

With ongoing expansion of the transport infrastructure to accommodate the need of growing population, the stress on natural construction resources, such as quarried aggregates, has been increasing. Hence, the use of alternative non-traditional waste material is becoming more popular. Coal wash, a by-product of coal mining, has been recently suggested as a substitute to traditional quarried materials. However, recent research showed that these waste aggregates have a weaker structure than conventional materials, which translates into significant potential for breakage upon compaction and loading. Therefore, it is important to quantify breakage and evaluate its influence on the final structure of the soil body and the associated geotechnical properties. This paper presents a critical literature review on compaction and shearing-induced breakage of granular material. The review addresses the available breakage indices developed in the literature to quantify breakage and their limitations. The factors affecting the degree of breakage and the influence of the latter on the different geotechnical properties of compacted granular materials is also discussed. The findings of this review could be extrapolated to waste materials and corresponding treatment methods could be developed to reduce their breakage potential, so they can be more confidently accepted as substitutes to traditional materials in transport infrastructure.

Keywords

Breakage Compaction Shearing Non-traditional materials 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The first author’s Ph.D. scholarship is supported by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Linkage Project (LP160100280).

References

  1. Bandini V, Coop MR (2011) The influence of particle breakage on the location of the critical state line of sands. Soils Found 51(4):591–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gupta AK (2016) Effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor of rockfill materials using medium triaxial test. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 8(3):378–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hardin BO (1985) Crushing of soil particles. J Geotech Eng 111(10):1177–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hazen A (1911) Discussion of “Dams on sand foundations”, by AC Koenig. Trans Am Soc Civil Eng 73(3):199–203Google Scholar
  5. Heitor A, Indraratna B, Kaliboullah CI, Rujikiatkamjorn C, McIntosh GW (2016) Drained and undrained shear behavior of compacted coal wash. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 142(5):04016006-1-04016006-10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hossain Z, Indraratna B, Darve F, Thakur PK (2007) DEM analysis of angular ballast breakage under cyclic loading. Geomech Geoeng 2(3):175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Indraratna B, Lackenby J, Christie D (2005) Effect of confining pressure on the degradation of ballast under cyclic loading. Géotechnique 55(4):325–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Indraratna B, Sun QD, Nimbalkar S (2015) Observed and predicted behaviour of rail ballast under monotonic loading capturing particle breakage. Can Geotech J 52(1):73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lackenby J, Indraratna B, McDowell G, Christie D (2007) Effect of confining pressure on ballast degradation and deformation under cyclic triaxial loading. Geotechnique 57(6):527–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lade PV, Karimpour H (2010) Static fatigue controls particle crushing and time effects in granular materials. Soils Found 50(5):573–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lade PV, Yamamuro JA (1996) Undrained sand behavior in axisymmetric tests at high pressures. J Geotech Eng 122(2):120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lade PV, Yamamuro JA, Bopp PA (1996) Significance of particle crushing in granular materials. J Geotech Eng 122(4):309–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee KL, Farhoomand I (1967) Compressibility and crushing of granular soil in anisotropic triaxial compression. Can Geotech J 4(1):68–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lu M, McDowell GR (2010) Discrete element modelling of railway ballast under monotonic and cyclic triaxial loading. Geotechnique 60(6):459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marsal RJ (1967) Large-scale testing of rockfill materials. J Soil Mech Found Div 93(2):27–43Google Scholar
  16. Marsal RJ (1973) Particle breakage. In: Casagrande A, Hirschfeld RC, Poulos SJ (eds) Embankment dam engineering: Casagrande volume. Wiley, New York, pp 130–141Google Scholar
  17. McDowell GR, Harireche O (2002) Discrete element modelling of soil particle fracture. Géotechnique 52(2):131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ngo NT, Indraratna B, Rujikiatkamjorn C (2017) Simulation ballasted track behavior: numerical treatment and field application. Int J Geomech 17(6):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rujikiatkamjorn C, Indraratna B, Chiaro G (2013) Compaction of coal wash to optimise its utilisation as water-front reclamation fill. Geomech Geoeng 8(1):36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sowers GF, Williams RC, Wallace TS (1965) Compressibility of broken rock and the settlement of rockfills. In: 6th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Montréal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  21. Taylor R (1978) Properties of mining wastes with respect to foundations. In: Bell F (ed) Foundation engineering in difficult ground. Butterworths, London, pp 175–203Google Scholar
  22. Wang JJ, Cheng YZ, Zhang HP, Deng DP (2015) Effects of particle size on compaction behavior and particle crushing of crushed sandstone-mudstone particle mixture. Environ Earth Sci 73(12):8053–8059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang JJ, Zhang HP, Deng DP (2014) Effects of compaction effort on compaction behavior and particle crushing of a crushed sandstone-mudstone particle mixture. Soil Mech Found Eng 51(2):67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yaghoubi E, Disfani MM, Arulrajah A, Kodikara J (2017) Impact of compaction method on mechanical characteristics of unbound granular recycled materials. Road Mater Pavement Des 18(2):1–23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam Tawk
    • 1
  • Buddhima Indraratna
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cholachat Rujikiatkamjorn
    • 1
  • Ana Heitor
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering, School of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations