Red Mud-Fly Ash Mix as an Embankment Fill Material

  • Parvathi Geetha SreekantanEmail author
  • A. K. Sinha
  • Vasant G. Havangi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 29)


Red mud is an industrial waste which is being generated by Bayer’s process of alumina production. It is generally dumped near the plant in a pond without any usage, occupying costly land. However, it has the potential for application in the construction of road embankment. It has also the potential for application in raising embankment height for the disposal of industrial waste pond itself. Thus, capacity augmentation of waste pond is also possible by mass recycling of red mud which leads to conserve the conventional soil. Considering this, red mud sample was collected from Hindalco, Muri, Jharkhand. Chemical and geotechnical characterization was carried out for its application in embankment construction. As its natural moisture content is very high due to disposal in a lean slurry form, with solid concentration in the range of 25–50%, it is very difficult to use in the field for the construction of embankment. Accordingly, it was blended with fly ash in the different proportion varying from 5 to 50% which is abundantly available near the plant. Detailed laboratory investigation was carried out on red mud-fly ash mixes, viz. modified proctor, permeability and triaxial shear tests. Suitability of red mud and its mixes as an embankment material was derived as per Indian standard specifications. This paper presents the geotechnical characterization of red mud and its mixes with fly ash. Design and stability analysis were also presented for a typical red mud embankment with or without fly ash mix. It was inferred that red mud alone and mixes with fly ash are suitable for the embankment construction.


Red mud Fly ash Embankment Construction Characterization 



The authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, for giving permission to publish this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parvathi Geetha Sreekantan
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. K. Sinha
    • 1
  • Vasant G. Havangi
    • 1
  1. 1.Geotechnical Engineering DepartmentCSIR-Central Road Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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