Jarofix Waste Material in Embankment Construction

  • A. K. SinhaEmail author
  • V. G. Havanagi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 29)


Due to the large-scale road infrastructural development in India, conventional soil is depleting very fast while different industries are producing a huge amount of waste materials as by-products. Utilization of such waste materials leads to sustainable road construction. Jarofix is one of the waste materials generated during the extraction of zinc from its ore. At present, the accumulated jarofix is about 35 lakh tons, while the annual production is about 6 lakh tons in India. Detailed R & D study was carried out to study the feasibility of jarofix in the construction of embankment. Jarofix sample was collected from Chittorgarh, Rajasthan and its geotechnical characteristics were investigated. Design and slope stability analysis of jarofix embankment of varying heights (1–10 m) and slopes (19°–45° or 1V:3H to 1V:1H) was carried out to decide its practical applicability in the field construction. The factor of safety was determined by numerical analysis under different water conditions, viz. partially saturation, steady flow, sudden draw down with, and without seismic factor. Results of variation of factor of safety with height, saturation, and slope are presented. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of different design parameters on the factor of safety of the embankment. A typical settlement analysis of jarofix embankment is also presented in this paper. It is concluded that jarofix waste material has a good potential for construction of embankment.


Jarofix Waste Material Embankment Construction Stability 



The kind approval of Director, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, India 110 025 to publish the research paper is acknowledged. The project was sponsored by Hindustan zinc limited is also acknowledged.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geotechnical Engineering DivisionCSIR-Central Road Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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