Effects of Stabilization on Engineering Characteristics of Fly Ash as Pavement Subbase Material

  • Deepti Patel
  • Rakesh Kumar
  • Krupesh Chauhan
  • Satyajit PatelEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 29)


Scarcity of natural resources is increasingly encountered around the world because of the increasing population. Fly ash is one of the problematic waste materials being generated in very large quantity in India by thermal power plants. The use of fly ash in road base, subbase, and subgrade layer provides an opportunity to use high volumes of the materials. In this study, engineering properties of different fly ash-lime (FAL) mixes and fly ash-cement (FAC) mixes were investigated for their effective use as subbase material for flexible pavements. The effect of binder content and curing period on unconfined compressive strength (UCS), CBR, and resilient modulus for all the mixes was studied. Fly ash with minimum 6% lime content and fly ash with minimum 6% cement content satisfy the minimum strength criteria recommended by Indian Road Congress (IRC) for their use in subbase layer. The resilient modulus of these mixes was found to be higher than that of conventional granular subbase (GSB). Finite element analyses of a five-layer flexible pavement system are carried out and the service life ratio of FAL and FAC mixes in relation to the conventional GSB layer is evaluated.


Unconfined compressive strength CBR Resilient modulus Fly ash Lime Cement 


  1. AASHTO T 307-99 (2000) Determining the resilient modulus of soils and aggregate materialsGoogle Scholar
  2. Arulrajah A, Piratheepan J, Disfani MM, Bo MW (2013) Resilient moduli response of recycled construction and demolition materials in pavement subbase applications. J Mater Civ Eng 25(12):1920–1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM C 618 (1999) Standard methods for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolana for use as amineral admixture in concrete. American Society for Testing Materials, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM D 559 (2003) Standard methods for wetting and drying compacted soil-cement mixtures. American Society for Testing Materials, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  5. Consoli NC, Rosa AD, Saldanha RB (2011) Variables governing strength of compacted soil-fly ash-lime mixtures. J Mater Civ Eng 23(4):432–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghosh A, Subbarao C (2007) Strength characteristics of class F fly ash modified with lime and gypsum. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 133(7):757–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. IRC 37 (2012) Tentative guidelines for the design of flexible pavements. Indian Roads Congress, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. IRC SP 20 (2002) Rural road manual. Indian Roads Congress, special Publication, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  9. IRC 89 (2010) Guidelines for soil and granular material stabilization using cement, lime and fly ash. Indian road congress, special publication, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. IS 2720 (Part 16) (1987) Laboratory determination of CBR, Indian Standard, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. IS 2720 (Part 10) (1991) Determination of unconfined compressive strength, Indian Standard, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaniraj SR, Gayathri V (2003) Factors influencing the strength of cement fly ash base courses. J Transp Eng 127(7):574–584Google Scholar
  13. Kolias S, Rigopoulou VK, Karahalios A (2004) Stabilisation of clayey soils with high calcium fly ash and cement. Cement Concr Compos 27(2005):301–313Google Scholar
  14. Patel S, Shahu JT (2016) Resilient response and permanent strain of steel slag-fly ash-dolime mix. J Mater Civ Eng 28(10):04016106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Peerapong J, Hamid N (2009) Mechanical behaviours of hydrated cement treated crushed rock base as a road base material in Western Australia. Int J Pavement Eng 10(1):39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Puppala AJ, Hoyos LR, Potturi AK (2011) Resilient moduli response of moderately cement-treated reclaimed asphalt pavement aggregates. J Mater Civ Eng 23(7):990–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sivapullaiah PV, Moghal AAB (2011) Role of Gypsum in the strength development of fly ashes with lime. J Mater Civ Eng 23(2):197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Witczak M, Uzan J (1988) The universal airport design system, “Rep. I of IV: Granular material characterization. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MDGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepti Patel
    • 1
  • Rakesh Kumar
    • 1
  • Krupesh Chauhan
    • 1
  • Satyajit Patel
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringS V National Institute of TechnologySuratIndia

Personalised recommendations