Developing Second Language Literacy: Taiwanese College Students’ Error Types in Focused Feedback Effectiveness

  • Chian-Wen KaoEmail author


Focused grammar feedback studies (which targeted one or two error types for corrections) have been criticized for investigating the effects of correction mostly on English article errors. This chapter reports results of a new feedback study that expanded the inventory of error types: article use, subject-verb agreement, and verb-noun collocation errors. Results for the immediate posttest writing task showed focused feedback to be effective for two error types: subject-verb agreement and verb-noun collocation. In delayed posttest writing, the feedback benefit was retained only for subject-verb agreement and beyond all expectations, the feedback became effective for article usages. This suggests to writing classroom instructors that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to correct language errors of all sorts.



The author would like to thank the editors and the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier version of this paper. The research reported in this chapter was supported by grant #107-2410-H-263-008-MY2 of Taiwan’s Ministry of Science and Technology.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chihlee University of TechnologyNew Taipei CityTaiwan, Republic of China

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