Developing Thinking Skills in English Literacy Instruction in Taiwanese Secondary Schools: Teachers’ Perspectives
This chapter first explores the nature of thinking skills and the role of critical thinking in second language literacy. The following section reports how the Ministry of Education in Taiwan introduced thinking skills as a new goal in the 2010 Curriculum Guidelines for Senior High School English. Next, salient findings extracted from three studies that revealed the impact of this curriculum reform on English teachers in Taiwan are presented. Most of the findings point to difficulties cultivating students’ critical thinking skills in an EFL class. At the end of the chapter, the authors discuss some strategies in response to the reported difficulties and conclude the chapter with a reflection on the feasibility of critical thinking skills development for Chinese-speaking EFL learners in Taiwan.
- ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages). (2018). Literacy in language learning. https://www.actfl.org/guiding-principles/literacy-language-learning.
- Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., Raths, J., & Wittrock, M. C. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (Pearson Education Group).Google Scholar
- Chamot, A. (1995). Creating a community of thinkers in the ESL/EFL classroom. TESOL Matters, 5(5), 1–16.Google Scholar
- Chen, C.-L. (2012). Teachers’ and students’ perceptions of the competence indicators in National Curriculum Guidelines for Senior High School English (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Taiwan Normal University.Google Scholar
- Cheng, Y. (2015). Incorporating thinking skills into senior high school English curriculum objectives: Policy formation and implementation. In C. L. Chern & Y. Cheng (Eds.), Cultivating thinking skills: Take English education at senior high school level as an example (pp. 37–57). Crane: Taipei.Google Scholar
- Cheng, Y., Yeh, H., & Su, S. (2011). Planning, implementation, and expected impact of the 2010 Curriculum Guidelines for Senior High School English: Teachers’ perspectives. English Teaching & Learning, 35(2), 91–137.Google Scholar
- Chuang, Y.-R. (2017). Teachers’ perceptions of the learning performance items in the 12-year basic education curriculum guidelines for junior high school English (Unpublished master’s thesis). National Taiwan Normal University.Google Scholar
- Ennis, R. H. (1962). A concept of critical thinking. Harvard Educational Review, 32(1), 81–111.Google Scholar
- Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Baron & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 9–26). New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
- Ennis, R. H. (2011, May). The nature of critical thinking: An outline of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. Paper presented in Sixth International Conference on Thinking at MIT, Cambridge, MA, July 1994. Last revised in May, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2018 from https://education.illinois.edu/docs/default-source/faculty-documents/robert-ennis/thenatureofcriticalthinking_51711_000.pdf?sfvrsn=7bb51288_2.
- Liaw, M. L. (2007). Content-based reading and writing for critical thinking skills in an EFL context. English Teaching & Learning, 31(2), 45–87.Google Scholar
- MOE (Ministry of Education, ROC). (2009). The supplementary explanations of the curriculum guidelines for senior high school English. Taipei, Taiwan.Google Scholar
- Mok, J. (2010). The new role of English language teachers: Developing students’ critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary school classrooms. Asian EFL Journal, 12(2), 262–287.Google Scholar
- Paul, R. W. (1987). Dialogical thinking: critical thought essential to the acquisition of rational knowledge and passions. In J. B. Baron & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 127–148). New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
- Paul, R. W. (1995). Bloom’s taxonomy and critical thinking instruction: Recall is not knowledge. In R. W. Paul (Ed.), Critical thinking: How to prepare students for a rapidly changing world (pp. 519–526). Tomales, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking.Google Scholar
- Presseisen, B. Z. (1986). Critical thinking and thinking skills: State of the art definitions and practice in public schools (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 268536).Google Scholar
- Rhoder, C., & French, J. N. (2011). Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Thompson, C. (2002). Teaching critical thinking in EAP courses in Australia. TESOL Journal, 11(4), 15–20.Google Scholar
- Yeh, H. (2011). Assessment of thinking skills and creativity in CEEC English tests. Bulletin of Testing and Assessment, 9, 25–47.Google Scholar