Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Myanmar
Myanmar, primarily an agriculture-based country in Southeast Asia, has started a series of economic and social reforms to vigorously develop vocational education over recent years. The vocational education in Myanmar comes in the two levels of secondary vocational education and higher vocational education. The government technical high schools and the government technical institutes double as public vocational education institutions. Besides, Myanmar cooperates with other countries in establishing a number of international cooperative vocational education institutions, such as Myanmar Industrial Training Centre, Myanmar Centre for Vocational Training, Singapore–Myanmar Vocational Training Institute, etc. The Government of Myanmar guarantees the quality of vocational education through legislation, national qualifications framework, and national certification and quality assurance committee in the main. However, Myanmar still faces grave challenges in management, capital investment, quality assurance, and school–enterprise cooperation in vocational education.
KeywordsVocational education in Myanmar Vocational education in ASEAN countries Vocational education system in Myanmar The belt and road
- Burma Considers Private Education [EB/OL]. (2009). http://www2.irrawaddy.com/article.php?art_id=17243. November 18, 2009.
- CVT: E4Y [EB/OL]. (2018). https://www.cvt-myanmar.com/e4y/education/. July 31, 2018.
- CVT: Organization [EB/OL]. (2018). https://www.cvt-myanmar.com/about-cvt/organisation/. July 31, 2018.
- CVT: Post Graduate Programs [EB/OL]. (2018). https://www.cvt-myanmar.com/post-graduate-programs/. July 31, 2018.
- CVT: VET [EB/OL]. (2018). https://www.cvt-myanmar.com/about-vet-at-cvt/. July 31, 2018.
- Kyi Shwin. (2015a). Implementation of ASEAN Qualification Reference Framework: Myanmar’s Readiness [R] Myanmar: Banmaw University, 14.Google Scholar
- Kyi Shwin. (2015b) Implementation of ASEAN Qualification Reference Framework: Myanmar’s Readiness [R] Myanmar: Banmaw University, 12.Google Scholar
- Theingi, M. S. (2009). Myanmar Country Paper: Reorienting TVET Policy Towards Education For Sustainable Development In Myanmar [R]. Myanmar: Ministry of Science and Technology, 4.Google Scholar
- Government of the Republic of Myanmar: National Employment & Skill Development Website [EB/OL]. (2017). http://www.nesdmyanmar.org/. November 21, 2017.
- GTC/GTI/THS—Department of Technical and Vocational Education (DTVE) [EB/OL]. (2017). http://dtve.moe-st.gov.mm/. November 24, 2017.
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China: An Overview of Myanmar [EB/OL]. (2018). http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/gjhdq_676201/gj_676203/yz_676205/1206_676788/1206x0_676790/. August 23, 2018.
- Miriam Amine. (2016). Baseline Report for the German-Myanmar Programme on Sustainable Economic Development [R] Germany: German Institute for Development Evaluation, 77.Google Scholar
- MOE (2015-2016) [EB/OL]. (2018). http://www.moe.gov.mm/en/. August 7, 2018.
- MOE. (2016a). National Education Strategic Plan 2016–21 Summary [R]. Myanmar, 12.Google Scholar
- MOE. (2016b). National Education Strategic Plan 2016-21 Summary [R]. Myanmar, 19.Google Scholar
- MOE: Education System in Myanmar [EB/OL]. (2018). http://220.127.116.11/dhel/education-system-in-myanmar/education-structure/. July 31, 2018.
- MOE: Yenangyaung Government Technical Institute [EB/OL]. (2018). http://engmoest.moe-st.gov.mm/. July 31, 2018.
- MOIP. (2016). 2014 Myanmar Population and Housing Census—The Union Report: Occupation and Industry—Census Report Volume 2-B [R]. Myanmar: Department of Population, Ministry of Immigration and Population, 11.Google Scholar
- Myanmar Industry Portal: Industry Training Center [EB/OL]. (2018). http://www.industry.gov.mm/en/information. July 31, 2018.
- Planco Consulting on behalf of GIZ. (2016). German Development Cooperation with Myanmar. Support of selected Polytechnic TVET Institutes. Feasibility Study. Final Report (unpublished).Google Scholar
- SMVTI: HOME [EB/OL]. (2018). https://www.smvti-mm.org/. July 31, 2018.
- TVET Country Profiles. (2018). Myanmar[R]. Germany: UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 5–6.Google Scholar
- WB: World Bank Data on Myanmar [EB/OL]. (2018). https://data.worldbank.org/country/myanmar. August 07, 2018.