Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Cambodia: Current Status and Future Development
This paper aims at providing the current development status of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Cambodia and future development policies established by the government by collecting TVET-related information/data from various sources. First, the paper provides an overview of the TVET system in Cambodia and features of Cambodia National Qualification Framework (CNQF) and Quality Assurance, particularly for TVET. The CNQF and QA are significantly interconnected when considering skills provision programmes that ensure Cambodian workforces are capable in working both locally and regionally. Next, the paper adds further details by showing information on TVET personnel (i.e. selection process, incentive, and professional development) as well as information on TVET graduates and their employment status and opportunity by integrating and summarizing findings/information/data from survey results of National Employment Agency (NEA) and Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training. The paper shows that there is an excess in demand for skilled workforce with technical skills, which implies fewer competitions among applicants when applying for a job in technical fields. Meanwhile, the interest in enrolling TVET training programmes by the students remains limited. Third, the paper introduces the eight challenges in the TVET system, which were acknowledged by the government, and the new fifteen policies for its future development. The new policies respond to four main objectives in TVET development including the improvement of TVET quality, increasing access to TVET, particularly by women and marginalized groups, strengthening of public–private partnership among TVET stakeholders, and improvement of governance in the TVET system. Finally, the paper concludes that TVET graduates may have an advantage over others in terms of job opportunity; however, this may not imply an increase in enrolment in TVET if the public and TVET stakeholders are not aware of the results. Though some developments have been made and new policies established, the paper suggests that implementation and regular evaluation/assessment on the implementation of policies are essential for TVET development in Cambodia. In addition, the paper recommends that the results of the evaluation/assessment should be shared among TVET stakeholders, scholars/researchers, as well as the public.
KeywordsNational qualification framework Quality Assurance TVET graduates Employment status Labour market National TVET policy
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