Advertisement

Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Cambodia: Current Status and Future Development

  • Sothy YokEmail author
  • Sesokunthideth Chrea
  • Ravy Pak
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Rethinking and Reforming Education book series (PRRE)

Abstract

This paper aims at providing the current development status of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Cambodia and future development policies established by the government by collecting TVET-related information/data from various sources. First, the paper provides an overview of the TVET system in Cambodia and features of Cambodia National Qualification Framework (CNQF) and Quality Assurance, particularly for TVET. The CNQF and QA are significantly interconnected when considering skills provision programmes that ensure Cambodian workforces are capable in working both locally and regionally. Next, the paper adds further details by showing information on TVET personnel (i.e. selection process, incentive, and professional development) as well as information on TVET graduates and their employment status and opportunity by integrating and summarizing findings/information/data from survey results of National Employment Agency (NEA) and Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training. The paper shows that there is an excess in demand for skilled workforce with technical skills, which implies fewer competitions among applicants when applying for a job in technical fields. Meanwhile, the interest in enrolling TVET training programmes by the students remains limited. Third, the paper introduces the eight challenges in the TVET system, which were acknowledged by the government, and the new fifteen policies for its future development. The new policies respond to four main objectives in TVET development including the improvement of TVET quality, increasing access to TVET, particularly by women and marginalized groups, strengthening of public–private partnership among TVET stakeholders, and improvement of governance in the TVET system. Finally, the paper concludes that TVET graduates may have an advantage over others in terms of job opportunity; however, this may not imply an increase in enrolment in TVET if the public and TVET stakeholders are not aware of the results. Though some developments have been made and new policies established, the paper suggests that implementation and regular evaluation/assessment on the implementation of policies are essential for TVET development in Cambodia. In addition, the paper recommends that the results of the evaluation/assessment should be shared among TVET stakeholders, scholars/researchers, as well as the public.

Keywords

National qualification framework Quality Assurance TVET graduates Employment status Labour market National TVET policy 

References

  1. Asian Development Bank. (2014). Technical and vocational education and training sector development program. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/82045/46064-002-rrp.pdf.
  2. Bruni, M., Luch, L., & Kuoch, S. (2013). Skills shortages and skills gaps in the Cambodian labour market: Evidence from employer skills needs survey 2013. Phnom Penh. Retrieved from http://www.nea.gov.kh/images/survay/Report_Cambodia_2013.pdf.
  3. Kouch, S. (2015). Skills shortages and skills gaps in the Cambodia labour market: Evidence from employer skills needs survey 2014. Phnom Penh. Retrieved from http://www.nea.gov.kh/images/survay/Report_Cambodia_2014.pdf.
  4. MEYS. (2015). Education statistics and indicators: 2014–2015. Phnom Penh.Google Scholar
  5. Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MLVT). (2017a). Quality assurance manual for technical and vocational education and training.Google Scholar
  6. Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MLVT). (2017b). TVET teacher selection announcement. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/584577648255405/posts/1488025281243966/.
  7. Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MLVT). (2018). 2013–2017 results report of labour and vocational training strategic plan 2014–2018 and future action plan.Google Scholar
  8. National Employment Agency. (2018). Cambodia job outlook 2018. Retrieved from http://www.nea.gov.kh/images/survay/Cambodia%20Job%20Outlook%202018-Final-05282018.pdf.
  9. National Institute of Statistics. (2018). Gross domestic productivity by economic activity: Percent distribution. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from https://www.nis.gov.kh/nis/NA/NA2016_Tab.htm.
  10. NIS. (2016). Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey 2015.Google Scholar
  11. Oum, S., & Ngov, P. (2017). Labor demand and supply forecast for Cambodia. Presentation Slides at the Cambodia Economic Association Annual Meeting on October 31, 2017.Google Scholar
  12. Royal Government of Cambodia. (2014). Cambodia national qualification framework. Retrieved from http://www.aeu.edu.kh/media/tinymce/uploads/pictures/guideline/NQFC_Book.pdf.
  13. Royal Government of Cambodia. (2017). National technical vocational education and training policy 2017–2025. Retrieved from http://www.mlvt.gov.kh/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&task=download&id=334_796b846781f83b1dbe3c44fc46a2344d&Itemid=201&lang=en.
  14. Royal Government of Cambodia. (n.d.). National strategic development plan 2014–2018: For growth, employment, equity and efficiency to reach upper middle income country. Royal Government of Cambodia. Retrieved from http://cdc-crdb.gov.kh/cdc/documents/NSDP_2014-2018.pdf.
  15. UNDP. (2016). Human development report 2016: Human development for everyone. New York.Google Scholar
  16. UNESCO. (2013). Policy review of TVET in Cambodia. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002253/225360e.pdf.
  17. World Bank. (2017). Cambodia economic update: Cambodia climbing up the manufacturing value chains. Retrieved from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/628341511277852360/Cambodia-economic-update-Cambodia-climbing-up-the-manufacturing-value-chains-October-2017.
  18. World Bank. (2018). Cambodia: Overview. Retrieved July 30, 2018, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/cambodia/overview. (Accessed January, 2018). World Bank Open Data—Cambodia.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Research and Statistic PlanningNational Technical Training Institute, Russian Federation BoulevardPhnom PenhCambodia

Personalised recommendations