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Reliability-Aware Fault-Tolerant Scheduling

  • Guoqi Xie
  • Gang Zeng
  • Renfa Li
  • Keqin Li
Chapter

Abstract

Reliability is widely identified as an increasingly relevant issue on heterogeneous distributed cloud systems because processor failure affects the quality of service for users. Replication-based fault-tolerance is a common approach to satisfy the application’s reliability requirement. This chapter solves the problem of minimizing redundancy to satisfy reliability requirement for a parallel application on heterogeneous distributed cloud systems. In addition, this chapter also focuses on heterogeneous distributed embedded systems such as ACPS, which are safety critical systems. And response time is an another safety attribution on ACPS. So this chapter further solves the problem of cost optimization when satisfying safety requirement including reliability and response time requirement on heterogeneous distributed embedded systems such as APCS. We first propose the enough replication for redundancy minimization (ERRM) algorithm to satisfy an application’s reliability requirement, and then propose heuristic replication for redundancy minimization (HRRM) to satisfy an application’s reliability requirement with low time complexity. ERRM can generate the least redundancy followed by HRRM, and the state-of-the-art MaxRe and RR algorithm. In addition, HRRM implements approximate minimum redundancy with a short computation time. Considering that a minimum number of replicas does not necessarily lead to the minimum execution cost and shortest schedule length in a heterogeneous distributed cloud systems, we further propose the quantitative fault-tolerance with minimum execution cost (QFEC) & QFEC+ algorithms and the quantitative fault-tolerance with minimum schedule length (QFSL) & QFSL+ algorithms while satisfying the reliability requirement of the workflow. Next, we present a safety-aware fault-tolerant methodology towards the resource cost optimization for end-to-end functional safety computation on ACPS. The proposed design methodology involves early functional safety requirement verification and late resource cost design optimization. We first propose the functional safety requirement verification (FSRV) algorithm to verify the functional safety requirement consisting of reliability and response time requirements of the distributed automotive function for the early design phase. And then we propose the resource cost-aware fault-tolerant optimization (RCFO) algorithm to reduce the resource cost while satisfying the functional safety requirement of the function for the late design phase. Finally, this chapter presents different experiments toward different application environments such as CPCS and ACPS. We first do the experiments for the redundancy cost optimization on real and randomly generated parallel applications at different scales, parallelism to validate the performance of ERRM and HRRM on heterogeneous distributed systems. We then do the experiments for the execution cost and scheduling length optimization on heterogeneous distributed cloud systems to validate the efficiency of QFEC, QFEC+, QFSL and QFSL+. We finally do the experiments for the resource cost optimization with real-life automotive and synthetic automotive applications on heterogeneous distributed embedded systems to validate the performance and efficiency of RCFO and VFSR.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoqi Xie
    • 1
  • Gang Zeng
    • 2
  • Renfa Li
    • 3
  • Keqin Li
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Computer Science and Electronic EngineeringHunan UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Graduate School of EngineeringNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Key Laboratory for Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems of Hunan ProvinceHunan UniversityChangshaChina
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceState University of New YorkNew PaltzUSA

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