Audio Tagging With Connectionist Temporal Classification Model Using Sequentially Labelled Data
Audio tagging aims to predict one or several labels in an audio clip. Many previous works use weakly labelled data (WLD) for audio tagging, where only presence or absence of sound events is known, but the order of sound events is unknown. To use the order information of sound events, we propose sequentially labelled data (SLD), where both the presence or absence and the order information of sound events are known. To utilize SLD in audio tagging, we propose a convolutional recurrent neural network followed by a connectionist temporal classification (CRNN-CTC) objective function to map from an audio clip spectrogram to SLD. Experiments show that CRNN-CTC obtains an area under curve (AUC) score of 0.986 in audio tagging, outperforming the baseline CRNN of 0.908 and 0.815 with max pooling and average pooling, respectively. In addition, we show CRNN-CTC has the ability to predict the order of sound events in an audio clip.
KeywordsAudio tagging Sequentially labelled data (SLD) Convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN) Connectionist temporal classification (CTC)
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