Advertisement

Relationship Between Field Crops and Mycorrhiza

  • Demet Altındal
  • Nüket Altındal
Chapter

Abstract

Nutrition, which is the basic requirement from the existence of humanity until today, makes agriculture one of the indispensables. Through agricultural production, it is aimed to make the most production with minimum input. In addition, the quality and reliable products to be obtained comes to the fore. During agricultural production, it is necessary to use organic materials rather than chemicals. For this reason, mycorrhizal fungi have an important place in agricultural production. and plant nutrition and is effective in taking many elements into the plant, especially P and Zn. For organic agriculture mycorrhiza production is important. In some countries making agriculture, the most important problem is the high input costs in production. One of the most important inputs is fertilizer. In some agricultural enterprises, excessive use of fertilizers due to insufficient awareness of the detrimental effects leads the loss of productivity of agricultural lands and adverse effects on the environment, while in some places insufficient use of fertilizers leads to low yield. For this reason, the importance of mycorrhiza fungus that can be substituted for fertilizer is great. It has been determined that many plants on earth form symbiotic relationships with fungi. Mycorrhizal fungus provides water and minerals from the outside to the plant, and organic matter from the inside to the outside. In this way, this symbiosis is active all the time and the nutritional cycle and plant viability in the ecosystem is maintained by providing resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors of plants.

So far, applications such as natural symbioses, classical agricultural methods, over-fertilization, eutrophication reduce the microbial diversity of the soil. In order to encourage symbiosis between nitrogen-binding bacteria and legume plants, many legume plants having important place in field crops should be cultivated, so the soil should be made productive, because human and animal nutrition food needs should be supplied.

Keywords

Mycorrhiza Legumes Field crops Fungus 

References

  1. Afek, U., Menge, J. A., & Johnson, E. L. V. (1990). Effect of Pythium ultimum and metalaxyl treatments on root length and mikorizal colonization of cotton, onion and pepper. Plant Disease, 74, 1177–1120.Google Scholar
  2. Aguilera, P., Larsenb, J., Boriea, F., Berríosa, D., Tapiaa, C., & Cornejoa, P. (2018). New evidences on the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inducing Al tolerance in wheat. Rhizosphere, 5, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akpınar, Ç. (2011). The effects of mycorrhizae inoculation on yield and nutrient uptake of canola following by maize. Çukurova University Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, PhD thesis, 185 page.Google Scholar
  4. Aram, H., & Golchin, A. (2013). The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nitrogen concentration of berseem clover in contaminated soil with cadmium. Journal of Chemical Health Risks, 3(2), 53–58.Google Scholar
  5. Bakhshandeh, S., Corneo, P. E., Mariotte, P., Kertesz, M. A., & Dijkstra, F. A. (2017). Effect of crop rotation on mycorrhizal colonization and wheat yield under different fertilizer treatments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 247, 130–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bazghaleh, N., Hamel, C., Gan, Y., Tar’an, B., & Knight, J. D. (2018). genotypic variation in the response of chickpea to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and non-mycorrhizal fungal endophytes. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 64(4), 265–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieleski, R. L. (1973). Phosphate pools, phosphate avability. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 24, 225–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bukovská, P., Bonkowski, M., Konvalinková, T., Beskid, O., Hujslová, M., Püschel, D., Řezáčová, V., Gutiérrez-Núñez, M. S., Gryndler, M., & Jansa, J. (2018). Utilization of organic nitrogen by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-is there a specific role for protists and ammonia oxidizers? Mycorrhiza, 28(3), 269–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ceylan, Ş., Mordoğan, N., & Çakıcı, H. (2016). Effect of zinc and mycorrhizae application on nutrient content yield and quality in cotton. Ege Journal of Agricultural Research (EJAR), 53(2), 117–123.Google Scholar
  10. Davies, F. T., Potter, J. R., & Linderman, R. G. (1992). Mycorrhiza and repeated drought exposure affect drought resistance and exraradical hyphae development of paper plants independent of plant size and nutrient content. Journal of Plant Physiology, 139, 289–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, R. M., Menge, J. A., & Erwin, D. C. (1979). Influence of Glomus fasciculatum and soil phosphorus on Andrticillium wilt of cotton. Phytopathology, 69, 453–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Demir, S., Bars Orak, A., & Demirer Durak, E. (2010). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus(AMF) dependency of some cotton cultivars ındicating different response against Verticillium wilt. Yuzuncu Yil University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(3), 201–207.Google Scholar
  13. Deng, Y., Feng, G., Chen, X., & Zou, C. (2017). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization is considerable at optimal Olsen-P levels for maximized yields in an intensive wheat-maize cropping system. Field Crops Research, 209, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Erlita, D., & Hariani, F. (2017). Pemberian mikoriza dan pupuk organik terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman jagung (Zea Mays). Agrium: Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian, 20(3), 268–272.Google Scholar
  15. Faber, B. A., Zaroski, R. J., Munns, D. A., & Shackal, K. (1991). A method of measuring hyphal nutrient and water uptake in mycorrhizal plants. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goicoechea, N., Antolin, M. C., & Sanchez-Diaz, M. (1997). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and rhizobium on nutrient content and water relations in drought stressed alfalfa. Plant and Soil, 192(2), 261–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu, Z. J., & Gui, X. D. (1991). Pretransplant inoculation with VA mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium blight of cotton. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 23, 201–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ibrahim, M. A., Campbell, W. F., Rupp, L. A., & Allen, E. B. (1990). Effects of mycorrhizae on sorghum growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance under drought conditions. Journal Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 4(2), 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ilag, L. L., Rosales, A. M., & Mew, T. W. (1987, May 3–8). Effect of Glomus sp. on Rhizoctonia infection in selected crops. In Proceedings of the 7th North American Conference on mycorrhizae (Vol. 201), Gainessville, FL USA.Google Scholar
  20. İnal, S., & Sönmez, O. (2011). The effects of mycorrhiza and different iron doses applications on the zinc toxicity. Journal of Agriculture Faculty HR.U, 15(2), 1–11.Google Scholar
  21. Jeffery, R. P., Simpson, R. J., Lambers, H., Orchard, S., Kidd, D. R., Haling, R. E., & Ryan, M. H. (2018). Contrasting communities of arbuscule-forming root symbionts change external critical phosphorus requirements of some annual pasture legumes. Applied Soil Ecology, 126, 88–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jeffries, P., & Dodd, J. C. (1991). The use of mycorrhizal inoculants in forestry and agriculture. In D. K. Arora, B. Raj, K. G. Mukerji, & G. R. Knudsen (Eds.), Handbook of applied mycology (pp. 155–185). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  23. Kucey, R. M. N., & Janzen, H. H. (1987). Effect of VAM and reduced nutrient availability on growth and phosphorus and micronutrient uptake of wheat and field beans under greenhouse conditions. Plant and Soil, 104, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li, X.-L., Marschner, H., & George, E. (1991). Acquisition of phosphorus and copper by VA-mycorrhizal hyphae and root-to-shoot transport in white clover. Plant and Soil, 136, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li, J., Sun, Y., Jiang, X., Chen, B., & Zhang, X. (2018). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate arsenic toxicity to Medicago sativa by influencing arsenic speciation and partitioning. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 15(157), 235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu, R. J. (1995). Effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on Verticillium wilt of cotton. Mycorrhiza, 5(4), 293–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loit, K., Soonvald, L., Kukk, M., Astover, A., Runno-Paurson, E., Kaart, T., & Öpik, M. (2018). The indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonisation potential in potato roots is affected by agricultural treatments. Agronomy Research, 16(2), 510 522.Google Scholar
  28. Lu, L. H., & Wu, Q. S. (2017). Mycorrhizas promote plant growth, root morphology and chlorophyll production in white clover. Biotechnology, 16, 34–39.Google Scholar
  29. Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral nutrition of high plants. Second edition (Vol. 37, pp. 155–159). London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  30. Menge, J. A., Jarrel, W., Labanauskas, W. M., Ojala, J. C., Huszar, C. E., Johnson, L. V., & Sibert, D. (1980). Predicting mycorrhizal dependency of troyer citrange on Glomus fasciculatus in California citrus soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 46(4), 762–768.Google Scholar
  31. Muktiyanta, M. N. A., Samanhudi, S., Yunus, A., Pujiasmanto, B., & Minardi, S. (2018). Effectiveness of cow manure and mycorrhiza on the growth of soybean. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 142(1), 012065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ortaş, İ. (1997). What is Mycorrhiza?. Journal of TUBİTAK, 351, Ankara.Google Scholar
  33. Ortaş, İ., Harris, P. J., & Rowell, D. L. (1996). Enhanced uptake of phosphorus by mycorrhizal sorghum plants as influenced by forms of nitrogen. Plant and Soil, 184, 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oruru, M. B., Njeru, E. M., Pasquet, R., & Runo, S. (2018). Response of a wild-type and modern cowpea cultivars to arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation in sterilized and non-sterilized soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 41(1), 90–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pacovsky, R. S. (1989). Carbohydrate, protein and amino acid status of Glycine-Glomus-Bradyrhizobium symbioses. Physiologia Plantarum, 75(3), 346–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Palta, Ş., Demir, S., Şengönül, K., Kara, Ö., & Şensoy, H. (2010). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), their relationships with plants and soil, range rehabilitation. Journal of Bartin Faculty of Forestry, 12(18), 87–98.Google Scholar
  37. Panwar, J. D. S. (1993). Response of VAM and Azospirillum inoculation to water, status and grain yield in wheat under, water stress condition. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 36, 41–43.Google Scholar
  38. Raj, J., Bagyaraj, D. J., & Manjunath, A. (1981). Influence of soil inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza and a phosphate-dissolving bacterium on plant growth and 32P-uptake. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 13(2), 105–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Robson, A., Abbott, L. K., & Schweiger, P. F. (1993). Benefits of VA mycorrhizas in agricultural and horticultural production. In 9th North American conference on mycorrhizae (abstracts) (Vol. 51, pp. 231–239), Guelph, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  40. Sharma, A. K., Johri, B. N., & Gianinazzi, S. (1992). Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae in relation to plant disease. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 8(6), 559–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sharma, M. P., Sharma, S. S., Prasad, R. D., Pal, K. K., & Dey, R. (2014). Chapter: Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in production of annual oilseed crops. In Z. M. Solaiman, L. K. Abbot, & A. Varma (Eds.), Mycorrhizal fungi: Use in sustainable agriculture and land restoration (Soil biology) (Vol. 41, pp. 119–148). Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Sieverding, E. (1991). Vesicular-arbusculer mycorrhiza management in tropical agrosystems. Technical Cooperation, Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany, 371 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Singh, J. P., Karamanos, R. E., & Stewart, J. W. B. (1986). Phosphorus-induced zinc deficiency in wheat on residual phosphorus plots. Agronomy Journal, 78(4), 668–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Smith, S. E., & Read, D. J. (2008). Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Third edition (Hardcover). New York: Academic Press is an Imprint of Elsevier. 800 p.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, S. E., Robson, A. D., & Abbott, L. K. (1992). The involvement of mycorrhizas in assessment of genetically dependent efficiency of nutrient uptake and use. Plant and Soil, 146(1–2), 169–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sönmez, F., Çığ, F., Erman, M., & Tüfenkçi, Ş. (2013). Effects of zinc, salt and mycorrhiza applications on the development and the phosphorus and zinc uptake of maize. Yuzuncu Yil University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  47. Subramanian, K. S., & Charest, C. (1995). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the metabolism of maize under drought stress. Mycorrhiza, 5(4), 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Subramanian, K. S., Tenshia, J. S. V., Jayalakshmi, K., & Ramachandran, V. (2011). Antioxidant enzyme activities in arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) fungus inoculated and non-inoculated maize plants under zinc deficiency. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 51(1), 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yüksel, A. (2006). The effects of different compost processes on two different growing environments on clover and onion plant’s growing plant nutrient elements uptake and mycorrizae infection quality. Msc thesis, Department of Soil Science Institue of Naturaland Applied Science University of Çukurova, page 101.Google Scholar
  50. Zhang, F., Hamel, C., Kianmehr, H., & Smith, D. L. (1995). Root-zone temperature and soybean [Glycine max. (L.) merr.] vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae: Development and interactions with the nitrogen fixing symbiosis. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 35(3), 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhu, X., Song, F., & Xu, H. (2010). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity of maize plants under temperature stress. Mycorrhiza, 20(5), 325–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Demet Altındal
    • 1
  • Nüket Altındal
    • 2
  1. 1.Fethiye Ali Sıtkı Mefharet Koçman Vocational School, Department of Crop and Animal Production, Organic Farming ProgrammeMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey
  2. 2.Sivaslı Vocational School, Department of Crop and Animal Production, Programme of Medical and Aromatic PlantsUşak UniversityUşakTurkey

Personalised recommendations