The Long-Term Livelihood Effects of the Conservation-Led Displacement in Kanchanpur, Nepal
This study focuses on the long-term livelihood effects of displacement. Using a novel panel dataset comprising households affected and unaffected by the Shuklaphanta National Park Extension Programme, this study disentangles the effect of displacement along ethnic lines. The main results illustrate that displaced households diversify their livelihoods and work more to compensate for the loss of traditional livelihoods. There is evidence that indicates that almost all ethnic groups were adversely affected emotionally—they felt a longing for their original land and felt a lack of communal spirit. The results also show that it is important to understand the effect of displacement beyond material well-being and across ethnic groups.
- Bhattarai, A. M. (2001). Displacement and rehabilitation in Nepal: Law, policy and practice. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.Google Scholar
- Bhattarai, S., Pant, B., & Timalsina, N. (2017). Conservation without participation: Detrimental effect of escaping people’s participation in protected area management in Nepal. In S. A. Mukul & A. Z. M. M. Rashid (Eds.), Protected areas: Policies, management and future directions (Chap. 4, pp. 83–104). New York: Nova Science Pub. Inc.Google Scholar
- Government of Nepal. (2017, February 20). Nepal Gazette—Chapter five. Ministry of Information and Communication, Department of Printing, Government of Nepal, Nepal.Google Scholar
- Pant, B. (2007). Impact of human relocation program on rural livelihood (A study from Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal). A report submitted to Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal and The Rufford Maurice Laing Foundation, Rufford Small Grant for Nature Conservation (RSG), UK.Google Scholar
- Upadhyaya, S. K., & Yonzon, P. (2003). Societal diagnosis of the settlements in the Buffer Zone of the Royal Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Farwest Nepal. Submitted to the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation of His Majesty’s Government of Nepal.Google Scholar