Performance Evaluation of 6-Gbps Hybrid DWDM/Multibeam Free-Space Optical Network in an Unusual Haze

  • Samir A. Al-GailaniEmail author
  • Mohd Rizal B. Arshad
  • Osayd M. Kharraz
  • Redhwan Q. Shaddad
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 547)


To prevail against atmospheric attenuation considering unusual haze in tropical areas and to scale the growing demand for high capacity communication bandwidth and scalability, a prominent technique is used known as dense hybrid wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM)/multibeam free-space optics (FSO). In this study, attenuation arising due to haze scattering which is given as a function of link distance, wavelength and visibility is estimated from visibility data obtained from Malaysian meteorological department. Maximum attenuation of 20 dB/km has been observed due to unusual haze in Malaysia. This attenuation of 20 dB/km is applied on a proposed hybrid four channel of 1.5-Gb/s DWDM/multibeam FSO network with four wavelengths having standard downlink channel spacing of 100 GHz (~0.8 nm). The hybrid DWDM/multibeam FSO method has enhanced the performance of an FSO link in terms of the data rate, link distance, received power and scalability. The proposed approach facilitated access data to four end users at a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s each, over a link distance of 1,645 m at BER of 10−9 under 20 dB/km attenuation.


  1. 1.
    Amandeep Kaur Virk, J.S.M., Pahuja, S.: Link margin optimization of free space optical link under the impact of varying meteorological conditions. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. (IJEST) 4, 1120–1125 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jabeena, A., Jayabarathi, T., Aggarwal, R., Singh, L.: Review on optimization of wireless optical communication system. Trends Opto-Electro Opt. Commun. 4, 9–19 (2014)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gupta, A., Anand, P., Khajuria, R., Bhagat, S., Jha, R.K.: A survey of free space optical communication network channel over optical fiber cable communication. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 105 (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Singh, M.S.J., Hassan, S.I.S., Ain, M.F.: Rainfall attenuation and rainfall rate measurements in Malaysia comparison with prediction models. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 4, 5–7 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-Gailani, S., Mohammad, A., Shaddad, R.: Enhancement of free space optical link in heavy rain attenuation using multiple beam concept. Optik Int. J. Light Electron Opt. 124, 4798–4801 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hitam, S., Suhaimi, S.N., Noor, A.S.M., Sahbudin, S.B.A.A., Zakiah, R.K.: Performance analysis on 16-channels wavelength division multiplexing in free space optical transmission under tropical regions environment. J. Comput. Sci. 8 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andrews, L.C., Phillips, R.L.: Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media, vol. 152. SPIE press, Bellingham, WA (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Islam, M.S., Mohammad, A., Al-Gailani, S.A.: Characteristics of free space optics communication link in an unusual haze (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kruse, P.W., McGlauchlin, L.D., McQuistan, R.B.: Elements of Infrared Technology: Generation, Transmission and Detection. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kim, I.I., Korevaar, E.: Availability of free space optics (FSO) and hybrid FSO/RF systems. In: Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 84–95 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willebrand, H., Ghuman, B.S.: Free space optics: enabling optical connectivity in today’s networks. Sams Publishing (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samir A. Al-Gailani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohd Rizal B. Arshad
    • 1
  • Osayd M. Kharraz
    • 2
  • Redhwan Q. Shaddad
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Communication EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations