Heterogeneous Air Conditioner Aggregation for Providing Operating Reserve Considering Price Signals

  • Yi DingEmail author
  • Yonghua Song
  • Hongxun Hui
  • Changzheng Shao


Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) have been studied to provide operating reserve for maintaining power balance between supply and demand. However, operating reserve capacity (ORC) supplied by aggregated TCLs is difficult to evaluate, due to the insufficient information of heterogeneous TCLs and consumer behaviours. This chapter proposes a quantitative ORC evaluation method for large-scale aggregated heterogeneous TCLs without sufficient measurement data. Firstly, an individual TCL model on account of consumer behaviours is developed to characterize the impact of fluctuated electricity prices and different thermal comfort requirements. Secondly, a novel optimization model of heterogeneous TCLs, which can guarantee consumer satisfaction, is proposed to provide operating reserve for power systems. Thirdly, the probability density estimation (PDE) method is developed to evaluate the ORC provided by large-scale heterogeneous TCLs with insufficient data. Numerical studies illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models and methods.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Ding
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yonghua Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongxun Hui
    • 1
  • Changzheng Shao
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.University of MacauMacauChina

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