Advertisement

Aggregated Air Conditioners for Providing Operating Reserve

  • Yi DingEmail author
  • Yonghua Song
  • Hongxun Hui
  • Changzheng Shao
Chapter

Abstract

The penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in power system is increasing around the world. However, the severe intermittency and variability characteristics of RES make the operating reserve become more and more important for the electric power system to maintain balance between supply and demand. Moreover, the flexible loads, especially for air conditioners (AC), are growing so rapidly that they account for an increasingly large share in power consumption. With the development of information and communication technologies (ICT), ACs can be monitored and controlled remotely to provide operating reserve and respond actively when needed by the electric power system operation. In this chapter, a novel control strategy for the aggregation model of ACs based on the thermal model of the room is proposed. By resetting the temperature of each AC, the operation state is adjusted temporarily without affecting customers’ satisfaction. The operation characteristics of both individual AC and the aggregation model of ACs are analysed. Furthermore, several indexes are put forward to evaluate the operating reserve performance, including reserve capacity, response time, duration time and ramp rate. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated in the numerical studies.

References

  1. 1.
    C. Wang, S.M. Shahidehpour, Effects of ramp-rate limits on unit commitment and economic dispatch. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 8(3), 1341–1350 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Y. Ding, L. Cheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Xue, Operational reliability evaluation of restructured power systems with wind power penetration utilizing reliability network equivalent and time-sequential simulation approaches. J. Mod. Power Syst. Clean Energy 2(4), 329–340 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Z. Csetvei, J. Østergaard, P. Nyeng. Controlling price-responsive heat pumps for overload elimination in distribution systems, in 2011 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), 2011 Dec 5 (2011), pp. 1–8Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Bhattacharya, Competitive framework for procurement of interruptible load services. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 18(2), 889–897 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y.C. Huang, Integrating direct load control with interruptible load management to provide instantaneous reserves for ancillary services. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 19(3), 1626–1634 (2004)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Lu, An evaluation of the HVAC load potential for providing load balancing service. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 3(3), 1263–1270 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Wu, Operating reserve model in the power market. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 20(1), 223–229 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Ryder-Cook, Thermal modelling of buildings. Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Technical Report 2009 May 11Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Hui, Y. Ding, D. Liu, Y. Lin, Y. Song, Operating reserve evaluation of aggregated airconditioners. Appl. Energy 196, 218–228 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.F. Straube, E.F. Burnett, Building Science for Building Enclosures (Building Science Press, 2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.L. Zheng, R.Y. Fang, Z.T. Yu, Life cycle assessment of residential heating systems: a comparison of distributed and centralized systems, in Applied Energy Symposium and Forum 2016: Low Carbon Cities & Urban Energy Systems (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Ji, T.T. Chow, G. Pei, J. Dong, W. He, Domestic air-conditioner and integrated water heater for subtropical climate. Appl. Therm. Eng. 23(5), 581–592 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Y.C. Park, Y.C. Kim, M.K. Min, Performance analysis on a multi-type inverter air conditioner. Energy Convers. Manag. 42(13), 1607–1621 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Shao, W. Shi, X. Li, H. Chen, Performance representation of variable-speed compressor for inverter air conditioners based on experimental data. Int. J. Refrig. 27(8), 805–815 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Qv, B.B. Dong, L. Cao, L. Ni, J.J. Wang, R.X. Shang, Y. Yao, An experimental and theoretical study on an injection-assisted air-conditioner using R32 in the refrigeration cycle. Appl. Energy. Available online 9 Nov 2016Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    F. Fang, Simulation and impact studies of Ecogrid EU reserve. Diss. Master’s thesis, Technical University Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J.R. Zhang, T.Y. Zhao, Handbook of Thermo Physical Properties of Common Substances in Engineering (National Defense Industry Press, Beijing, 1987)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone. JGJ134-2010. Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weather Underground, Hourly Weather History & Observations in Hangzhou (2015). https://www.wunderground.com/cgi-bin/findweather/getForecast?query=hangzhou
  20. 20.
    N.A. Sinitsyn, S. Kundu, S. Backhaus, Safe protocols for generating power pulses with heterogeneous populations of thermostatically controlled loads. Energy Convers. Manag. 67, 297–308 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Ding
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yonghua Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongxun Hui
    • 1
  • Changzheng Shao
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.University of MacauMacauChina

Personalised recommendations