Air Conditioning and Heating as Demand Response in Modern Power Systems

  • Yi DingEmail author
  • Yonghua Song
  • Hongxun Hui
  • Changzheng Shao


The utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) is burgeoning to deal with the rapidly increasing energy consumption and environment deterioration. The fluctuation brought by the growing share of RES will continuously increase, while the conventional operating reserve providers may not be able to satisfy the requirements of the system with burgeoning RES in the future. The development of information and communication technologies (ICT) and electricity market has made the remote control of flexible loads much easier. Thus it is possible for small end-customers to provide operating reserve to support the operation of the power systems. As one of the most popular and easily controlled flexible loads, air conditioners and heating equipment account for a large share in power consumption due to the mass application across the world. Facing the huge potential of air conditioning and heating loads, this book proposes the quantitative evaluation method of the regulation service, the capacity evaluation method of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads under dynamic price signals, the sequential-dispatch of operating reserve considering lead-lag rebound effect, and the frequency regulation control method, respectively. Moreover, the integration of flexible heating demand intro the integrated energy system and a three-level framework for utilizing the demand response to improve the operation of the integarated energy system are also proposed. The economical evaluation of the flexible resources for providng the operational flexibility in the power system is also analysed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Ding
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yonghua Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongxun Hui
    • 1
  • Changzheng Shao
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.University of MacauMacauChina

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