Functional dysphonia results from abnormal phonatory modes or vocal behaviors when laryngeal structure is normal. Examples of the vocal behaviors include vocal fatigue, muscle tension dysphonia, functional aphonia, and ventricular fold phonation, leading to hoarseness and even aphonia. Functional dysphonia can be caused by a variety of factors or stimulation, following psychological factor or emotional excitement, or secondary to organic laryngeal lesions. Long-term or inadequate voice rest can also lead to secondary functional dysphonia. Voice therapy is the main treatment approach for functional dysphonia. Psychotherapy can also assist at the same time (Figs. 11.1, 11.2, and 11.3; Videos 11.1 and 11.2).
Strobolaryngoscopic video of functional dysphonia before voice therapy (MP4 4059 kb)
Strobolaryngoscopic video of functional dysphonia after voice therapy (MP4 1765 kb)