Advertisement

Nutrient Enrichment in Lake Ecosystem and Its Effects on Algae and Macrophytes

  • Divya Dubey
  • Venkatesh Dutta
Chapter

Abstract

Freshwater lakes constitute a significant part of the hydrological cycle of the earth as they maintain ecological balance and support diverse aquatic biodiversity. Increasing urbanization, land use modifications, pollution, and various other anthropogenic activities including catchment land use change around lakes cause stress on lake ecosystem which include eutrophication, acidification, siltation, introduction of exotic macrophytic species, and toxic contamination. Eutrophication is considered as a major stress for lake ecosystem as increasing nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorous result in greater density of macrophytes that leads to change in trophic states of lakes. Unhealthy anthropogenic activities leading to eutrophication and excessive growth nuisance of macrophytes result in disturbed ecological balance within the lakes. As reported by many limnologists, macrophytes in freshwater lakes are highly sensitive to slight change in climatic conditions, along with changes in nutrient concentration, because of which macrophytes are considered as bioindicators for assessing the trophic states of lakes. This review paper presents an overview of the problem of nutrient enrichment leading to eutrophication, characteristics of different trophic states, and effects of nutrient enrichment on macrophytes and algal species present in lakes. Eutrophication causes changes in physical and chemical quality of water and sediments which affects the whole ecohydrology of lakes along with changes in composition, diversity and richness, and species succession of algae and macrophytes along with change in trophic state. Eutrophication results in growth of undesirable and harmful algal species and flourishing growth of exotic invasive macrophytes resulting in altered species composition and habitat structure which affects overall ecological functioning of lakes and results in extinction of many sensitive species of algae and macrophytes. This may disturbs the overall lacustrine food web irreversibly affecting our aquatic biodiversity adversely.

Keywords

Lakes Eutrophication Algae Macrophytes Species succession 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to UGC and the Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, for providing us infrastructure and facilities for doing this review work.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to authorship, research, and publication of this article.

Funding

No financial support or funding is provided for the publication of this review paper.

References

  1. Allan JD (2004) Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:257–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen JH, Conley DJ, Hedal S (2004) Palaeoecology, reference conditions and classification of ecological status: the EU Water Framework Directive in practice. Mar Pollut Bull 49(4):283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aznar JC, Dervieux A, Grillas P (2002) Association between aquatic vegetation and landscape indicators of human pressure. Wetlands 23(1):149–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldassarre GA, Bolen EG (1994) Waterfowl ecology and management. Wiley, New York, p 609Google Scholar
  5. Barendregt A, Bio AM (2003) Relevant variables to predict macrophyte communities in running waters. Ecol Model 160(3):205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellinger EG, Sigee DC (2015) Freshwater algae: identification and use as bioindicators. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  7. Berman T, Chava S (1999) Algal growth on organic compounds as nitrogen sources. J Plankton Res 21:1423–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernez I, Daniel H, Haury J, Ferreira MT (2004) Combined effects of environmental factors and regulation on macrophyte vegetation along three rivers in western France. River Res Appl 20(1):43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolpagni R, Piotti A (2015) Hydro-hygrophilous vegetation diversity and distribution patterns in riverine wetlands in an agricultural landscape: a case study from the Oglio River (Po Plain, Northern Italy). Phytocoenologia 45(1–2):69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolpagni R, Piotti A (2016) The importance of being natural in a human-altered riverscape: role of wetland type in supporting habitat heterogeneity and the functional diversity of vegetation. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshwat Ecosyst 26(6):1168–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown CD, Hoyer MV, Bachmann RW, Canfield DE Jr (2000) Nutrient-chlorophyll relationships: an evaluation of empirical nutrient-chlorophyll models using Florida and north-temperate lake data. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57(8):1574–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brucet S, Poikane S, Lyche-Solheim A, Birk S (2013) Biological assessment of European lakes: ecological rationale and human impacts. Freshw Biol 58(6):1106–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Canfield DE (1983) Prediction of chlorophyll a concentrations in Florida lakes: the importance of phosphorus and nitrogen. Jawra J Am Water Resour Assoc 19(2):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carbiener R, Trémolières M, Mercier JL, Ortscheit A (1990) Aquatic macrophyte communities as bioindicators of eutrophication in calcareous oligosaprobe stream waters (Upper Rhine plain, Alsace). Vegetatio 86(1):71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carpenter SR (1981) Submersed vegetation: an internal factor in lake ecosystem succession. Am Nat 118(3):372–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter SR, Lodge DM (1986) Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Aquat Bot 26:341–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpenter SR, Caraco NF, Correll DL, Howarth RW, Sharpley AN, Smith VH (1998) Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 8(3):559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carvalho L, Poikane S, Solheim AL, Phillips G, Borics G, Catalan J, Laplace-Treyture C (2012) Strength and uncertainty of phytoplankton metrics for assessing eutrophication impacts in lakes. Hydrobiologia 704(1):127–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cellamare M, Morin S, Coste M, Haury J (2012) Ecological assessment of French Atlantic lakes based on phytoplankton, phytobenthos and macrophytes. Environ Monit Assess 184(8):4685–4708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chapra SC (1997) Surface water quality modeling. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 560–575Google Scholar
  21. Çiçek NL, Yamuç F (2017) Using epilithic algae assemblages to assess water quality in Lake Kovada and Kovada Channel (Turkey), and in relation to environmental factors. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 17(4):701–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cole GA, Weihe PE (2015) Textbook of limnology. Waveland Press, Long GroveGoogle Scholar
  23. Colijn F, Hesse KJ, Ladwig N, Tillman U (2002) Effects of the large-scale uncontrolled fertilization process along the continental coastal North Sea. In: Sustainable increase of marine harvesting: fundamental mechanisms and new concepts. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 133–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Conley DJ, Paerl HW, Howarth RW, Boesch DF, Seitzinger SP, Karl E, Gene E (2009) Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science 123:1014–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cronk JK, Fennessy MS (2001) Wetland plants: biology and ecology. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  26. De Souza Cardoso L, Da Motta Marques D (2009) Hydrodynamics-driven plankton community in a shallow lake. Aquat Ecol 43(1):73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deegan LA, Wright A, Ayvazian SG, Finn JT, Golden H, Merson RR, Harrison J (2002) Nitrogen loading alters seagrass ecosystem structure and support of higher trophic levels. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshwat Ecosyst 12(2):193–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doyle RD (2000) Effects of sediment resuspension and deposition on plant growth and reproduction. US Army Corps of Engineers, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  29. Duarte CM (1992) Nutrient concentration of aquatic plants: patterns across species. Limnol Oceanogr 37(4):882–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6(6):503–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eriksson BK, Bergström L (2005) Local distribution patterns of macroalgae in relation to environmental variables in the northern Baltic Proper. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 62(1–2):109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fang Y, Yang XE, Pu PM, Chang HQ, Ding F (2004) Water eutrophication in Li-Yang reservoir and its ecological remediation countermeasures. J Soil Water Conserv 18(6):183–186Google Scholar
  33. Fennessy S (1998) Testing the floristic quality assessment index as an indicator of riparian wetland disturbance. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Technical BulletinGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferreira TF, Junior CRF, Da Motta MD (2008) Efeito da liberação de nutrientes por plantas aquáticas sobre a dinâmica de estads alternativos da comunidade fitoplanctônica em um lago raso subtropical. Rev Bras Recur Hídr 13:151–160Google Scholar
  35. Ferreira TF (2009) O papel das macrófitas submersas sobre a qualidade da água, restauração e conservação de lagos rasos subtropicais: estudo de caso, a Lagoa Mangueira, RS.Google Scholar
  36. Ferreira TF, Crossetti LO, Marques DMM, Cardoso L, Fragoso CR Jr, van Nes EH (2018) The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in a large subtropical shallow lake: clear effects on water chemistry and phytoplankton structure community along a vegetated-pelagic gradient. Limnologica 69:142–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fraterrigo JM, Downing JA (2008) The influence of land use on lake nutrients varies with watershed transport capacity. Ecosystems 11(7):1021–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Früh D, Stoll S, Haase P (2012) Physico-chemical variables determining the invasion risk of freshwater habitats by alien mollusks and crustaceans. Ecol Evol 2(11):2843–2853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gettys LA, Haller WT, Bellaud M (2014) Biology and control of aquatic plants. A best management practices handbook, 3rd edn. Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation, MariettaGoogle Scholar
  40. Havera SP (1999) Waterfowl of Illinois, Special Publication, vol 21. Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana, p 436Google Scholar
  41. Heegaard E, Birks HH, Gibson CE, Smith SJ, Wolfe-Murphy S (2001) Species–environmental relationships of aquatic macrophytes in Northern Ireland. Aquat Bot 70(3):175–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hilt S, Henschke I, Rücker J, Nixdorf B (2010) Can submerged macrophytes influence turbidity and trophic state in deep lakes? Suggestions from a case study. J Environ Qual 39(2):725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hilton JO, Hare M, Bowes MJ, Jones JI (2006) How green is my river? A new paradigm of eutrophication in rivers. Sci Total Environ 365(1–3):66–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoyer MV (1981) Suspended solids-zooplankton abundance: effects of phosphorus-chlorophyll a relationships in Midwest reservoirs. Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  45. Hutchinson GE (1975) A treatise of limnology, Limnological botany, vol 3. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Jensen HS, Andersen FO (1992) Importance of temperature, nitrate, and pH for phosphate release from aerobic sediments of four shallow, eutrophic lakes. Limnol Oceanogr 37(3):577–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kalff J (2002) Limnology. Inland water system. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  48. Klimes J (2007) Bud banks and their role in vegetative regeneration–a literature review and proposal for simple classification and assessment. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 8(3):115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kufel L, Kufel I (2002) Chara beds acting as nutrient sinks in shallow lakes – a review. Aquat Bot 72(3–4):249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lacoul P, Freedman B (2006) Environmental influences on aquatic plants in freshwater ecosystems. Environ Rev 14(2):89–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leach JH, Herron RC (1992) A review of lake habitat classification. The development of an aquatic habitat classification system for lakes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 27–57Google Scholar
  52. Leonhard BG (2013) Monitoring the eutrophication of lakes and harmful algal bloom using satellite data. Master in Emergency Early Warning and Response Space ApplicationsGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu W, Qiu R (2007) Water eutrophication in China and the combating strategies. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82(9):781–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu W, Zhang Q, Liu G (2010) Lake eutrophication associated with geographic location, lake morphology and climate in China. Hydrobiologia 644(1):289–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Madsen J, Chambers P, James W, Koch E, Westlake D (2001) The interaction between water movement, sediment dynamics and submersed macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 444:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Madsen JD, Wersal RM, Tyler M, Gerard PD (2006) The distribution and abundance of aquatic macrophytes in Swan Lake and Middle Lake, Minnesota. J Freshw Ecol 21(3):421–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Malik M, Balkhi MH, Abubakr A, Bhat F (2017) Assessment of trophic state of Nagin Lake based on limnological and bacteriological studies. Nat Environ Pollut Technol 16(2):485–491Google Scholar
  58. Meerhoff M, Fosalba C, Bruzzone C, Mazzeo N, Noordoven W, Jeppesen E (2006) An experimental study of habitat choice by Daphnia: plants signal danger more than refuge in subtropical lakes. Freshw Biol 51(7):1320–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Melzer A (1999) Aquatic macrophytes as tools for lake management. Hydrobiologia 395(396):181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Middelboe AL, Sand-Jensen K (2000) Long-term changes in macroalgal communities in a Danish estuary. Phycologia 39(3):245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mikulyuk A, Barton M, Hauxwell J, Hein C, Kujawa E, Minahan K, Wagner KI (2017) A macrophyte bioassessment approach linking taxon-specific tolerance and abundance in north temperate lakes. J Environ Manag 199:172–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mischke U, Böhmer J (2008) Software PhytoSee Version 3.0 Preliminary English Version of the calculation program for German Phyto-See-Index (PSI) according to Mischke et al. 2008 to assess natural lakes to implement the European Water Framework Directive. Free internet download (PhytoSee_Vers3_0_eng. zip). Free internet download: http://igb-berlin.de/alt2/mitarbeiter/mischke
  63. Murphy KJ, Kennedy MP, McCarthy V, Ó’Hare MT, Irvine K, Adams C (2002) A review of ecology based classification systems for standing freshwaters. SNIFFER, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  64. National Research Council (1992) Restoration of aquatic ecosystems: science, technology, and public policy. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  65. Naumann E (1929) The scope and chief problems of regional limnology. Int Rev Hydrobiol 22(1):423–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Netherland MD, Lembi CA, Poovey AG (2009) Screening of various herbicide modes of action for selective control of algae responsible for harmful blooms (no erdc/tn-ansrp-09-2). Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS Coastal and Hydraulics LabGoogle Scholar
  67. Nõges T (2009) Relationships between morphometry, geographic location and water quality parameters of European lakes. Hydrobiologia 633(1):33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Noges P, Mischke U, Laugaste R, Solimini AG (2010) Analysis of changes over 44 years in the phytoplankton of Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia): the effect of nutrients, climate and the investigator on phytoplankton-based water quality indices. Hydrobiologia 646(1):33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Noges P, Noges T, Ghiani M, Sena F, Fresner R, Friedl M, Mildner J (2011) Increased nutrient loading and rapid changes in phytoplankton expected with climate change in stratified South European lakes: sensitivity of lakes with different trophic state and catchment properties. Hydrobiologia 667(1):255–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Novotny V (1994) Water quality: prevention, identification and management of diffuse pollution. Van Nostrand-Reinhold Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Oertli B, Auderset Joye D, Castella E, Juge R, Lehmann A, Lachavanne JB (2005) PLOCH: a standardized method for sampling and assessing the biodiversity in ponds. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshwat Ecosyst 15(6):665–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Padisák J, Borics G, Grigorszky I, Soroczki-Pinter E (2006) Use of phytoplankton assemblages for monitoring ecological status of lakes within the Water Framework Directive: the assemblage index. Hydrobiologia 553(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Paerl HW, Huisman J (2008) Blooms like it hot. Science 320(5872):57–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Paul WJ, Hamilton DP, Ostrovsky I, Miller SD, Zhang A, Muraoka K (2012) Catchment land use and trophic state impacts on phytoplankton composition: a case study from the Rotorua lakes’ district, New Zealand. Hydrobiologia 698(1):133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pinedo S, García M, Satta MP, De Torres M, Ballesteros E (2007) Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean. Mar Pollut Bull 55(1–6):126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rahul U, Arvind PK, Upadhyay SK (2013) Assessment of lake water quality by using Palmer and trophic state index – a case study of Upper Lake, Bhopal, India. Int Res J Environ Sci 2:1–8. ISSN:2319-1414Google Scholar
  77. Rakocevic-Nedovic J, Hollert H (2005) Phytoplankton community and chlorophyll a as trophic state indices of Lake Skadar (Montenegro, Balkan). Environ Sci Pollut Res 12(3):146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rast W, Ryding SO (1989) Control of eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs. UNESCO/Parthenon Publishing Group Limited, Paris/CarnforthGoogle Scholar
  79. Reynolds CS, Reynolds JB (1985) The a typical seasonality of phytoplankton in Crose Mere, 1972: an independent test of the hypothesis that variability in the physical environment regulates community dynamics and structure. Br Phycol J 20:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rhew K, Baca RM, Ochs CA, Threlkeld ST (1999) Interaction effects of fish, nutrients, mixing and sediments on 74 autotrophic picoplankton and algal composition. Freshw Biol 42:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Riley SP, Busteed GT, Kats LB, Vandergon TL, Lee LF, Dagit RG, Sauvajot RM (2005) Effects of urbanization on the distribution and abundance of amphibians and invasive species in southern California streams. Conserv Biol 19(6):1894–1907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Scheffer M (1998) Ecology of shallow lakes. Chapman & Hall, London, p 357Google Scholar
  83. Schneider S, Melzer A (2003) The Trophic Index of Macrophytes (TIM) – a new tool for indicating the trophic state of running waters. Int Rev Hydrobiol J Cover Asp Limnol Mar Biol 88(1):49–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sculthorpe CD (1967) Biology of aquatic vascular plants. Koeltz Scientific Books, KönigsteinGoogle Scholar
  85. Seddon B (1972) Aquatic macrophytes as limnological indicators. Freshw Biol 2:107–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Seele J, Mayr M, Staab F, Raeder U (2000) Combination of two indication systems in pre-alpine lakes—diatom index and macrophyte index. Ecol Model 130(1–3):145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sender J, Maślanko W, Różańska-Boczula M, Cianfaglione K (2017) A new multi-criteria method for the ecological assessment of lakes: a case study from the transboundary biosphere reserve ‘West Polesie’ (Poland). J Limnol 76(s1)Google Scholar
  88. Sevindik TO, Tunca H, Gönülol A, Gürsoy N, Küçükkaya ŞN, Kinali Z (2017) Phytoplankton dynamics and structure, and ecological status estimation by the Q assemblage index: a comparative analysis in two shallow Mediterranean lakes. Turk J Bot 41(1):25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shen DS (2002) Study on limiting factors of water eutrophication of the network of rivers in plain. J Zhejiang Univ Agric Life Sci 28(1):94–97Google Scholar
  90. Smith VH (1982) The nitrogen and phosphorus dependence of algal biomass in lakes: an empirical and theoretical analysis. Limnol Oceanogr 27(6):1101–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith VH (2003) Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems a global problem. Environ Sci Pollut Res 10(2):126–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith VH, Bennett SJ (1999) Nitrogen: phosphorus supply ratios and phytoplankton community structure in lakes: nutrient ratios. Arch Hydrobiol 146(1):37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Soltan D, Verlaque M, Boudouresque CF, Francour P (2001) Changes in macroalgal communities in the vicinity of a Mediterranean sewage outfall after the setting up of a treatment plant. Mar Pollut Bull 42(1):59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Søndergaard M, Moss B (1998) Impact of submerged macrophytes on phytoplankton in shallow freshwater lakes. In: The structuring role of submerged macrophytes in lakes. Springer, New York, pp 115–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stednick JD, Hall EB (2001) Applicability of trophic status indicators to Colorado plains reservoirs. Completion report, Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, no. 195Google Scholar
  96. Stelzer D, Schneider S, Melzer A (2005) Macrophyte-based assessment of lakes – a contribution to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive in Germany. Int Rev Hydrobiol J Cover Asp Limnol Mar Biol 90(2):223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stewart BA, Davies BR (1990) Allochthonous input and retention in a small mountain stream, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 202(3):135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stewart AJ, Robert G, Wetzel WK (1982) Influence of dissolved humic materials on carbon assimilation and alkaline phosphatase activity in natural algal-bacterial assemblages. Freshw Biol 12(4):369–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Strayer DL (2010) Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with other stressors, and prospects for the future. Freshw Biol 55:152–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Suren AM, Ormerod SJ (1998) Aquatic bryophytes in Himalayan streams: testing a distribution model in a highly heterogeneous environment. Freshw Biol 40(4):697–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Telesh IV (2004) Plankton of the Baltic estuarine ecosystems with emphasis on Neva Estuary: a review of present knowledge and research perspectives. Mar Pollut Bull 49(3):206–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Thiébaut G, Muller S (1998) The impact of eutrophication on aquatic macrophyte diversity in weakly mineralized streams in the Northern Vosges Mountains (NE France). Biodivers Conserv 7(8):1051–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thiebaut G, Guérold F, Muller S (2002) Are trophic and diversity indices based on macrophyte communities pertinent tools to monitor water quality? Water Res 36(14):3602–3610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tibby J, Tiller D (2007) Climate–water quality relationships in three Western Victorian (Australia) lakes 1984–2000. Hydrobiologia 591(1):219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Toporowska M, Pawlik-Skowronska B, Krupa D, Kornijow R (2010) Winter versus summer blooming of phytoplankton in a shallow lake: effect of hypertrophic conditions. Pol J Ecol 58(1):3–12Google Scholar
  106. Van den Berg M, Coops H, Simons J, De Keizer A (1998) Clear water associated with dense Chara vegetation in the shallow and turbid Lake VeluwemeerGoogle Scholar
  107. Velinsky DJ (2004) Ecologically based small pond management. Limnol Small Ponds 2:3–67Google Scholar
  108. Wersal RM, Madsen JD (2012) Aquatic plants their uses and risks. A review of the global status of aquatic plants. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  109. Western D (2001) Human-modified ecosystems and future evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci 98(10):5458–5465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wetzel RG (1992) Gradient-dominated ecosystems: sources and regulatory functions of dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems. In: Dissolved organic matter in lacustrine ecosystems. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wu J, Cheng S, Liang W, He F, Wu Z (2009) Effects of sediment anoxia and light on turion germination and early growth of Potamogeton crispus. Hydrobiologia 628(1):111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Xie D, Yu D, Yu LF, Liu CH (2010) Asexual propagations of introduced exotic macrophytes Elodea nuttallii, Myriophyllum aquaticum, and M. propinquum are improved by nutrient-rich sediments in China. Hydrobiologia 655(1):37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Xie D, Zhou H, Zhu H, Ji H, Li N, An S (2015) Differences in the regeneration traits of Potamogeton crispus turions from macrophyte-and phytoplankton-dominated lakes. Sci Rep 5:12907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yang XE, Wu X, Hao HL, He ZL (2008) Mechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 9(3):197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yin K (2002) Monsoonal influence on seasonal variations in nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in coastal waters of Hong Kong in the vicinity of the Pearl River estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 245:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Divya Dubey
    • 1
  • Venkatesh Dutta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations