Soil Pollution by Fluoride in India: Distribution, Chemistry and Analytical Methods

  • Gayatri Singh
  • Geetgovind Sinam
  • Kriti
  • Maneesha Pandey
  • Babita Kumari
  • Mahiya Kulsoom


Fluoride is an essential element required for normal development and growth of the body at trace level but is highly toxic at concentration above 1.5 μg ml−1. Pollution of soil by fluoride in India is an old problem but least given the attention. In India, the problem of F contamination was first reported in groundwater from Andhra Pradesh in 1937. Since then, the cases of fluoride contamination of soil and water are increasing day by day. Presently, in India, 19 states are highly affected from the pollution of fluoride in groundwater and soil. Major source of fluoride in India is mainly from the fluoride-containing rocks, use of phosphate fertilizers, and emission of smelters.

To estimate the fluoride in the samples, numbers of methods are available. Some of the methods are electrochemical method, like potentiometry, voltametry and polarography, chromatography, micro-fluid analysis, capillary zone electrophoresis, sensors, spectroscopy and titrimetry.


Fluoride Soil Analytical methods Fluoride source Fluoride distribution 



Diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid




Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


Triethylenetetranitrilohexaacetic acid


  1. Abramović B, Gaál FF, Cvetković SD (1992) Titrimetric determination of fluoride in some pharmaceutical products used for fluoridation. Talanta 39:511–515. Scholar
  2. Asav E, Yorganci E, Akyilmaz E (2009) An inhibition type amperometric biosensor based on tyrosinase enzyme for fluoride determination. Talanta 78(2):553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrow NJ, Ellis AS (1986) Testing a mechanistic model. III. The effects of pH on fluoride retention by a soil. J Soil Sci 37:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baunthiyal M, Sharma V (2012) Phytoremediation of fluoride contaminated water and soil: a search for fluoride hyperaccumulators. J Agric Tech 8(6):1965–1978Google Scholar
  5. Beneberu S, Zewge F, Chandravanshi BS (2006) Removal of excess fluoride from water by aluminium hydroxide. Bull Chem Soc Ethiop 20(1):17–34Google Scholar
  6. Bhat N, Jain S, Asawa K, Tak M, Shinde K, Singh A, Gandhi N, Gupta VV (2015) Assessment of fluoride concentration of soil and vegetables in vicinity of zinc smelter, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan. J Clin Diagn Res 9(10):ZC63–ZC66Google Scholar
  7. Bhattacharya P, Samal AC (2018) Fluoride contamination in groundwater, soil and cultivated foodstuffs of India and its associated health risks: a review. Res J Recent Sci 7(4):36–47Google Scholar
  8. Bishnoi M, Malik R (2009) Ground water quality in environmentally degraded localities of Panipat city. India J Environ Biol 29:881–886Google Scholar
  9. Bombik E, Bombik A, Gorski K, Saba L, Bombik T, Rymuza K (2011) The effect of environmental contamination by fluoride compounds on selected horse tissues. Pol J Environ Stud 20(1):37–43Google Scholar
  10. Borjigin S, Ashimura Y, Yoshioka T, Mizoguchi T (2009) Determination of fluoride using ion-selective electrodes in the presence of aluminum. Anal Sci 25(12):1437–1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braen SN, Weinstein LH (1985) Uptake of fluoride and aluminium by plants grown in contaminated soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 24:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brindha K, Elango L (2011) Fluoride in groundwater: causes, implications and mitigation measures. In: Monroy SD (ed) Fluoride properties, applications and environmental management. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 111–136Google Scholar
  13. Cameron R, Ritchie GS, Robson AD (1986) The relative toxicities of inorganic aluminium complexes to barley. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:1231–1236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Care DA (1995) The effect of aluminium concentration on root hairs in white clover (Trifolium repens). Plant Soil 171:159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. CEPA, Canadian Environmental Protection Act Report (1996) National Ambient Air Quality Objectives for Hydrogen Fluoride (HF). 1. Science Assessment Document for HF. Federal-Provincial Working Group on Air Quality Objectives and Guidelines. En42-17/6- 1997E. Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  16. CGWB (2013) Groundwater Brochure, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh (AAP-2012-13). Central Ground Water Board. Southern Region, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  17. Chadha DK, Tamta SR (1999) Occurrence and origin of groundwater fluoride in phreatic zone of Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh. J Appl Geochem 1:21–26Google Scholar
  18. Chakrabarti S, Bhattacharya HN (2013) Inferring the hydro-geochemistry of fluoride contamination in Bankura district, West Bengal: a case study. J Geol Soc India 82(4):379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chakraborti D, Chanda CR, Samanta G, Chowdhury UK, Mukherjel SC, Pal AB, Sharma B, Mahanta KJ, Ahmed HA, Sing B (2000) Fluorosis in Assam, India. Curr Sci 78:1421–1423Google Scholar
  20. Chatterjee MK, Mohabey NK (1998) Potential fluorosis problems around Chandidongri, Madhya Pradesh. India Environ Geochem Health 20(1):1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chinoy NJ, Narayana MV, Sequeira E, Joshi SM, Barot JM, Purohit RM, Parikh DJ, Ghodasara NB (1992) Studies on effects of fluoride in 36 villages of Mehsana district, North Gujarat. Fluoride 25(3):101–110Google Scholar
  22. Choubisa SL (1997) Fluoride distribution and fluorosis in some villages of Banswara district of Rajasthan. Indian J Environ Health 39(4):281–288Google Scholar
  23. Choubisa SL (2010) Osteodental fluorosis in domestic horses and donkeys in Rajasthan, India. Res Rep Fluoride 43(1):5–12Google Scholar
  24. Das B, Talukdar J, Sarma S, Gohain B, Dutta RK, Das HB, Das SC (2003) Fluoride and other inorganic constituents in groundwater of Guwahati, Assam, India. Curr Sci 85(5):657–661Google Scholar
  25. Davison A (1983) Uptake, transport and accumulation of soil and airborne fluorides by vegetation. In: Shupe J, Peterson H, Leone N (eds) Fluorides: effects on vegetation, animals and humans. Paragon Press, Salt Lake City, pp 61–82Google Scholar
  26. Deshmukh AN, Wadaskar PM, Malpe DB (1995) Fluoride in environment: a review. Gondwana Geol Mag 9:1–20Google Scholar
  27. Devi SB, Kamble RK (2006) Groundwater fluoride in east Imphal district of Manipur. Indian J Environ Prot 26(10):885–891Google Scholar
  28. Domingos M, Klumpp A, Rinaldi MCS, Modesto IF, Klumpp G, Delitti WBC (2003) Combined effects of air and soil pollution by fluoride emissions on Tibouchina pulchra Cogn., at Cubatão, SE Brazil, and their relations with aluminium. Plant Soil 249:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dutta J (2013) Fluoride, arsenic and other heavy metals contamination of drinking water in the tea garden belt of Sonitpur district, Assam, India. Int J ChemTech Res 5(5):2614–2622Google Scholar
  30. Farrell JR, Iles P, Sands TJ (1999) Simultaneous determination of fluoride and phenolics in water using flow injection analysis. Lab Robot Autom 11(2):105–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fornasiero RB (2001) Phytotoxic effects of fluorides. Plant Sci 161:979–985. Scholar
  32. Frant MS, Ross JW (1966) Electrode for sensing fluoride ion activity in solution. Science 154(3756):1553–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garrido M, Lista AG, Palomeque M, Fernandez Band BS (2002) Fluorimetric determination of fluoride in a flow assembly integrated on-line to an open/closed FIA system to remove interference by solid phase extraction. Talanta 58(5):849–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ghorai S, Pant KK (2005) Equilibrium, kinetics and breakthrough studies for adsorption of fluoride on activated alumina. Sep Purif Technol 42:265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gilpin L, Johnson AH (1980) Fluorine in agriculture in soils of southeastern Pennsylvania. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:255–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grauer UE (1993) Modeling anion amelioration of aluminium phytotoxicity. Plant Soil 57:319–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gunnlaugsson T, Glynn M, Tocci GM, Kruger PE, Pfeffer FM (2006) Anion recognition and sensing in organic and aqueous media using luminescent and colorimetric sensors. Coord Chem Rev 250(23–24):3094–3117. Scholar
  38. Gupta R, Mishra AK (2014) Groundwater fluoride in Haryana state: a review on the status and its mitigation. Study Civ Eng Archit (SCEA) 3:24–28Google Scholar
  39. Gupta MK, Singh V, Rajwanshi P, Agarwal M, Rai K, Srivastava S, Shrivastav R, Dass S (1999) Groundwater quality assessment of Tehsil Kheragarh Agra (India) with special reference to fluoride. Environ Monit Assess 59(3):272–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haldimann M, Zimmerli B (1993) Evaluation of ashing procedures for the gas chromatographic determination of flouride in biological material. Anal Chim Acta 282(3):589–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Handa BK (1975) Geochemistry and genesis of fluoride containing groundwater in India. Ground Water 13:275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hani H (1978) Interactions by fluoride with a mineral soil containing illite and alterations of maize plants grown in this soil. Fluoride 11:18–24Google Scholar
  43. Hiremath PG, Theodore T (2017) Modeling of fluoride sorption from aqueous solution using green algae impregnated with zirconium by response surface methodology. Adsorpt Sci Technol 35(1–2):194–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hull WE, Port RE, Herrmann R, Britsch B, Kunz W (1988) Metabolites of 5-fluorouracil in plasma and urine, as monitored by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, for patients receiving chemotherapy with or without methotrexate pretreatment. Cancer Res 48(6):1680–1688Google Scholar
  45. Hurd-Karrer AM (1950) Comparative fluorine uptake by plants in limed and unlimed soil. Soil Sci 70:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacks G, Bhattacharya P, Chaudhary V, Singh KP (2005) Controls on the genesis of some high fluoride ground waters in India. Appl Geochem 20:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jain CK, Bandyopadhyay A, Bhadra A (2010) Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Environ Monit Assess 166:664–671Google Scholar
  48. Jones P (1992) Development of a high-sensitivity ion chromatography method for the determination of trace fluoride in water utilizing the formation of the AlF2+ species. Anal Chim Acta 258(1):123–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (1992). Trace elements in soils and plants. 2nd edition, CRC Press, London.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Khairnar MR, Dodamani AS, Jadhav HC, Naik RG, Deshmukh MA (2015) Mitigation of fluorosis – a review. J Clin Diagn Res 9(6):ZE05–ZE09. Scholar
  51. Koritnig S (1951) Ein Beitrag zur Geochemie des Fluor. Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 1:89–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kotecha PV, Patel SV, Bhalani KD, Shah D, Shah VS, Mehta KG (2012) Prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India. Indian J Med Res 135(6):873–877Google Scholar
  53. Kumar B, Naaz A, Shukla K, Narayan C, Singh G, Kumar A (2016) Spatial variability of fluorine in agricultural soils around Sidhi district, Central India. J Geol Soc India 87(2):227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kundu N, Panigrahi MK, Tripathy S, Munshi S, Powell MA, Hart BR (2001) Geochemical appraisal fluoride contamination of groundwater in Nayagarh district of Orissa, India. Environ Geol 41:451–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Latha SS, Anbika SR, Prasad SJ (1999) Fluoride contamination status of groundwater in Karnataka. Curr Sci 76:730–734Google Scholar
  56. Li SFY (1992) Capillary electrophoresis: principles, practice, and applications. Elsevier Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Li N, Shang X (1986) Studies on the polarographic adsorptive complex wave of lanthanum-alizarin complexone-fluoride system. Fenxi Shiyanshi 5(8):I2–I4Google Scholar
  58. Loganathan P, Hedley MJ, Wallace GC, Roberts AH (2001) Fluoride accumulation in pasture forages and soils following long-term applications of phosphorus fertilisers. Environ Pollut 115:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mao Y, Chen Y, Chu L, Zhang X (2013) Electrodeposited apatite coating for solid-phase microextraction and sensitive indirect voltammetric determination of fluoride ions. Talanta 115:500–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Meenakshi, Garg V, Kavita K, Renuka Malik A (2004) Groundwater quality in some villages of Haryana, India: focus on fluoride and fluorosis. J Hazard Mater 106(1):55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Merugu R, Domala R, Kudle KR, Rudra MPP (2012) Factors influencing the removal of fluoride from water using a fungal biosorbent prepared from Fusarium moniliforme. Int J ChemTech Res 4(3):1094–1098Google Scholar
  62. Michigami Y, Kuroda Y, Ueda K, Yamamoto Y (1993) Determination of urinary fluoride by ion chromatography. Anal Chim Acta 274(2):299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mishra PC, Meher K, Bhosagar D, Pradhan K (2009) Fluoride distribution in different environmental segments at Hirakud Orissa (India). Afr J Environ Sci Technol 3(9):260–264Google Scholar
  64. Misra AK, Mishra A, Premraj R (2006) Escalation of groundwater fluoride in the Ganga alluvial plain of India. Res Rep Fluoride 39(1):35–38Google Scholar
  65. Montes Bayon M, Rodrıguez Garcia A, Garcıa Alonso JI, Sanz-Medel A (1999) Indirect determination of trace amounts of fluoride in natural waters by ion chromatography: a comparison of on-line post-column fluorimetry and ICP-MS detectors. Analyst 124(1):27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mukherjee S, Yadav V, Mondal M, Banerjee S, Halder G (2017) Characterization of a fluoride-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter sp. RH5 towards assessment of its water defluoridation capability. Appl Water Sci 7:1923–1930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Muralidharan D, Nair A, Satyanarayana U (2002) Fluoride in shallow aquifers in Rajgarh Teshil of Churu district, Rajashtan – an arid environment. Curr Sci 83(6):699–702Google Scholar
  68. Murray JJ (ed) (1983) Appropriate use of fluorides for human health. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  69. Musijowski J, Szostek B, Koc M, Trojanowicz M (2010) Determination of fluoride as fluorosilane derivative using reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection for determination of total organic fluorine. J Sep Sci 33(17–18):2636–2644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Naik RR, Dodamani AS, Vishwakarma P, Jadhav HC, Khairnar MR, Deshmukh MA, Wadgave U (2017) Level of fluoride in soil, grain and water in Jalgaon district, Maharashtra, India. J Clin Diagn Res 11(2):ZC05–ZC07Google Scholar
  71. Nawlakhe WG, Lutade SL, Patni PM, Deshpande IS (1995) Groundwater quality in Shivpuri district in Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Environ Health 37(4):278–284Google Scholar
  72. Omueti JAI, Jones RL (1977) Fluoride adsorption by Illinois soils. J Soil Sci 28:564–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pandey DD, Tripathi A, Singh TP (2016) Removal of fluoride from industrial waste water using Mosambi peel as biosorbent: kinetics studies. Int J Sci Eng Tech 4(1):2348–4098Google Scholar
  74. Parham H, Rahbar N (2009) Solid phase extraction–spectrophotometric determination of fluoride in water samples using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Talanta 80(2):664–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Patel KS, Sahu BL, Dahariya NS, Bhatia A, Patel RK, Matini L, Sracek O, Bhattacharya P (2015) Groundwater arsenic and fluoride in rajnandgaon district, Chhatisgarh, Northeastern India. Appl Water Sci 7(4):1817–1826. Scholar
  76. Pickering WF (1985) The mobility of soluble fluoride in soils. Environ Pollut Ser B 9:281–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Polomski J, Fluhler H, Blaser P (1982) Fluoride-induced mobilization and leaching of organic matter, iron and aluminium. J Environ Qual 11:457–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Polonskij VI, Polonskaya DE (2013) Fluoride contamination of soil and phytoremediation (review). Agricultural Biol 1:3–14.
  79. Prodi L, Bolletta F, Montalti M (2000) Luminescence signaled enantiomeric recognition of choral ammonium ions by enantiomerically pure dimethylacridino-18 crown-6ligand. New J Chem 24:781–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Quintana MC, Blanco MH, Hernandez L (2003) Highly sensitive methods for determination of fluoride in biological samples. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 26(5):763–772. Scholar
  81. Rao NS (2003) Groundwater quality: focus on fluoride concentration in rural parts of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Hydrological Sci J 48(5):835–847 Scholar
  82. Rao NS, Devdas DJ (2003) Fluoride incidence in groundwater in an area of Peninsular India. Environ Geol 45(2):243–251. Scholar
  83. Ray SK, Ghosh S, Tiwari IC, Kaur P, Reddy DCS, Nagchaudhuri J (1983) Dental fluorosis in Ledhupur and Rustampur villages near Varanasi. Indian J Med Res 77:112–118Google Scholar
  84. Ray D, Rao RR, Bhio AV, Biswas AK, Ganguly AK, Sanyal PI (2000) Physico-chemical quality of drinking water in Rohtas district of Bihar. Environ Monit Assess 61(3):387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Romar A, Gago C, Fernandez-Marcos LM, Alvarez E (2009) Influence of fluoride addition on the composition of solutions in equilibrium with acid soils. Pedosphere 19(1):60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sahli MAM, Tahaikt M, Achary I, Taky M, Elhanouni F, Hafsi M, Elmghari M, Elmidaoui A (2006) Technical optimization of nitrate removal for groundwater by electrodialysis (ED) using a pilot plant. Desalination 189:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sarvanan S, Kalyani C, Vijayarani M, Jayakodi P, Felix A, Nagarajan S, Arunmozhi P, Krishnan P (2008) Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in rural areas of Chidambaram Taluk Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India. Indian J Community Med 33(3):146e150. Scholar
  88. Seth R, Mohan M, Singh P, Singh R, Dobhal R, Singh KP, Gupta S (2016) Water quality evaluation of Himalayan rivers of Kumaun region, Uttarakhand, India. Appl Water Sci 6(2):137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Shah AF, Ishrat A, Batra M, Gupta V (2014) Fluoride in the water of Kashmir valley: a BI bevelled concern. Int J Sci Nat 5 (3): 443–447Google Scholar
  90. Shaji E, Bindu VJ, Thambi DS (2007) High fluoride in groundwater of Palghat district, Kerala. Curr Sci 92(2):240–245. Available at: Scholar
  91. Sharma SK (2003) High fluoride in groundwater cripples life in parts of India. 7C Groundwater. In: Proceedings of the diffuse pollution conference, Dublin, pp 51–62Google Scholar
  92. Shashi A, Bhardwaj M (2011) Prevalence of dental fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas of Punjab, India. Biosci Biotechnol Res Commun 4(2):155–163Google Scholar
  93. Singh BR (1990) Cadmium and fluoride uptake by oats and rape from phosphate fertilizers in two different soils. Nor J Agric Sci 4:239–249Google Scholar
  94. Singh M, Verma KK (2013) Influence of fluoride-contaminated irrigation water on physiological responses of poplar seedlings (Populus deltoides l. Clone-s7c15). Res Rep Fluoride 46(2):83–89Google Scholar
  95. Singh RK, Singha MM, Singh RK (2009) Fluoride contamination in water of Koshi region (Bihar). Int J Chem Sci 7(2):919–922Google Scholar
  96. Singh G, Kumari B, Sinam G, Kriti, Kumar N, Mallick S (2018) Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective – a review. Environ Pollut 239:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sreedevi PD, Ahmed S, Made B, Ledoux Gandolfi JM (2006) Association of hydro-geological factors in temporal variations of fluoride concentration in a crystalline aquifer in India. Environ Geol 50(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Srikanth R, Chandra TR, Kumar BR (2008) Endemic fluorosis in five villages of the Palamau district, Jharkhand, India. Fluoride 41(3):206–211Google Scholar
  99. Street JJ, Elwali AMO (1983) Fluorite solubility in limed acid sandy soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47(3):483–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sujatha D (2003) Fluoride levels in the groundwater of the south-eastern part of Ranga Reddy district, Andhar Pradesh. India Environ Geol 44:587–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sundaram CS, Meenakshi S (2009) Fluoride sorption using organic-inorganic hydbrid type ion exchangers. J Colloid Interface Sci 333(1):58–62. Scholar
  102. Susheela AK, Bhatnagar M, Kumar A (1996) Status of drinking water in the mega city Delhi. In: Proceedings of the 22nd WEDC (Water, environment and management conference), New Delhi, pp 299–301Google Scholar
  103. Teotia SPS, Teotia M (1994) Dental caries: a disorder of high fluoride and low dietary calcium interactions. Fluoride 27(2):59–66Google Scholar
  104. US NAS (1971) Fluorides, biological effects of atmospheric pollutants. US National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  105. Veeraputhiran V, Alagumuthu G (2011) Treatment of high fluoride drinking water using bioadsorbent. Res J Chem Sci 1(4):49–54Google Scholar
  106. Vithanage M, Bhattacharya P (2015) Fluoride in drinking water: health effects and remediation. In: Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D (eds) CO2 sequestration, biofuels and depollution, Environmental chemistry for a sustainable world. Springer, Cham, pp 105–151. Scholar
  107. Wada H, Mori H, Nakagawa G (1985) Spectrophotometric determination of fluoride with lanthanum/alizarincomplexone by flow injection analysis. Analytzca Chimica Acta, 172 (1985) 297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Waghmare SS, Arfin T (2015) Fluoride removal from water by various techniques: review. Int J Innovat Sci Eng Technol 2(9):560–571Google Scholar
  109. Wang P, Li SFY, Lee HK (1997) Simultaneous determination of monofluorophosphate and fluoride in toothpaste by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A 765:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Weinreich W, Acker J, Graber I (2007) Determination of total fluoride in HF/HNO3/H2SiF6 etch solutions by new potentiometric titration methods. Talanta 71(5):1901–1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Weinstein LH, Alscher-Herman R (1982) Physiological responses of plants to fluorine. In: Unsworth MH, Ormrod DP (eds) Effects of gaseous air pollution in agriculture and horticulture. Butterworth, London, pp 139–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wodeyar BK, Sreenivasan G (1996) Occurrence of fluoride in the groundwaters and its impact in Peddavankahalla basin, Bellary district, Karnataka, a preliminary study. Curr Sci 70:71–74Google Scholar
  113. Yahyavi H, Kaykhaii M, Mirmoghaddam M (2016) Recent developments in methods of analysis for fluoride determination. J Clin Diagn Res 46(2):106–121Google Scholar
  114. Yasmin S, Ranjan S, D’Souza D (2014) Haematological changes in fluorotic adults and children in fluoride endemic regions of Gaya district, Bihar, India. Environ Geol Health 36(3):421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gayatri Singh
    • 1
  • Geetgovind Sinam
    • 1
  • Kriti
    • 1
  • Maneesha Pandey
    • 2
  • Babita Kumari
    • 1
  • Mahiya Kulsoom
    • 3
  1. 1.Plant Ecology and Climate Change DivisionCSIR-National Botanical Research InstituteLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations