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Soil Pollution by Fluoride in India: Distribution, Chemistry and Analytical Methods

  • Gayatri Singh
  • Geetgovind Sinam
  • Kriti
  • Maneesha Pandey
  • Babita Kumari
  • Mahiya Kulsoom
Chapter

Abstract

Fluoride is an essential element required for normal development and growth of the body at trace level but is highly toxic at concentration above 1.5 μg ml−1. Pollution of soil by fluoride in India is an old problem but least given the attention. In India, the problem of F contamination was first reported in groundwater from Andhra Pradesh in 1937. Since then, the cases of fluoride contamination of soil and water are increasing day by day. Presently, in India, 19 states are highly affected from the pollution of fluoride in groundwater and soil. Major source of fluoride in India is mainly from the fluoride-containing rocks, use of phosphate fertilizers, and emission of smelters.

To estimate the fluoride in the samples, numbers of methods are available. Some of the methods are electrochemical method, like potentiometry, voltametry and polarography, chromatography, micro-fluid analysis, capillary zone electrophoresis, sensors, spectroscopy and titrimetry.

Keywords

Fluoride Soil Analytical methods Fluoride source Fluoride distribution 

Abbreviations

CDTA

Diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid

DTPA

Diethylenetriaminepentacetate

EDTA

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

TTHA

Triethylenetetranitrilohexaacetic acid

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gayatri Singh
    • 1
  • Geetgovind Sinam
    • 1
  • Kriti
    • 1
  • Maneesha Pandey
    • 2
  • Babita Kumari
    • 1
  • Mahiya Kulsoom
    • 3
  1. 1.Plant Ecology and Climate Change DivisionCSIR-National Botanical Research InstituteLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.School of Environmental SciencesBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

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