Wildlife Management in Japan

  • Ryo Sakurai
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)


Japan is known for having high biodiversity, with more than 90,000 confirmed animal species, and is listed as one of the 34 “biodiversity hotspots” of the world. From the end of the 1800s to the 1970s, wildlife management focused primarily on “conservation,” owing to the fact that most of the major wildlife species were overhunted during that period in Japan. However, thanks to wildlife conservation laws and efforts, species such as wild boar and deer have increased their populations rapidly and have expanded their ranges broadly. Research regarding wildlife management traditionally has been considered as a field of natural science in Japan. Social studies regarding wildlife management conducted in Japan have three primary features: (1) most of these social studies have been conducted because of increasing damage caused by wildlife, (2) a number of these studies have not necessarily followed or utilized findings from human dimensions studies in other parts of the world, and (3) and most of the studies have been published only in Japanese, which has made it nearly impossible for others outside of Japan to understand the social aspects of any studies regarding wildlife management in this country.


  1. Aiko T, Shoji Y, Kuriyama K. Questionnaire survey regarding nature conservation and utilization: handbook of social survey regarding park management, wildlife, and tourism. Tokyo: Kikuchi Shokan; 2016. p. 314. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. Asahi Shimbun. Conflict with wildlife; 2017. February 4, p. 10.Google Scholar
  3. Biodiversity Policy Research Group. 100 key words of biodiversity. Tokyo: Chuohoki; 2002. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. Cabinet Office Japan. Annual report on the aging society. Tokyo, Japan; 2014. (in Japanese). Accessed 12 July 2015.
  5. Igota H, Ueda G, Suzuki M, Yamamoto T, Yoshida T. Wildlife and society: the science of human dimensions. Tokyo: Buneidoshuppan; 2011. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Kaji K, Igota M, Suzuki M. Science of hunting: for wildlife management in Japan. Tokyo: Asakura; 2013. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  7. Kawai M, Hayashi Y. Rebellion of wildlife. Tokyo: PHP Science World Research Center; 2009. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. Kikuchi N. Revived oriental white stork. Tokyo: Tokyo University; 2006. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  9. Kohira M, Okada H, Yamanaka M. 6. Controlled exposure: demographic trends, dispersal patterns, and management of brown bear in Shiretoko National Park. In: McCullough DR, Kaji K, Yamanaka M, editors. Wildlife in Shiretoko and Yellowstone National Parks: lessons in wildlife conservation from two World Heritage sites. Hokkaido: Shiretoko Nature Foundation; 2006. p. 238–41.Google Scholar
  10. Kubo T. Heterogeneous preferences for wildlife management: a latent class approach. Wildl Hum Soc. 2014;1(2):49–60. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  11. Kubo T, Shoji Y. Using choice experiment to assess potential demand for a bear-watching tour: a case study in Daisetsuzan National Park, Japan. Wildl Conserv Jpn. 2012;13(2):9–18. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  12. Kubo T, Shoji Y. Spatial tradeoffs between residents’ preferences for brown bear conservation and the mitigation of human-bear conflicts. Biol Conserv. 2014;176:126–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kubo T, Shoji Y. Public segmentation based on the risk perception of brown bear attacks and management preferences. Eur J Wildl Res. 2016;62(2):203–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maeji I, Yokoyama S, Shibata E. Population density and rage use of sika deer, Cervus nippon, on Mt. Ohdaigahara, central Japan. J For Res. 1999;4:235–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maruyama Y. Environmental issues of macaques and people: between nature conservation and damage regarding Japanese macaques. Kyoto: Showado; 2006. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  16. Miller GT, Spoolman SE. Living in the environment. 18th ed. Stamford: Cengage Learning; 2015.Google Scholar
  17. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Change of agricultural damage by wildlife. 2014. (in Japanese). Accessed 11 Jan 2017.
  18. Ministry of the Environment. The wildlife in Japan. Tokyo: Wildlife Division, Nature Conservation Bureau; 2008.Google Scholar
  19. Ministry of the Environment. Results of survey of population and habitats of deer and boars for implementing specified wildlife capturing program based on revision of wildlife law. 2015. (in Japanese). Accessed 11 Jan 2017.
  20. Muroyama Y. Chapter 3: Wildlife management. In: Kawai M, Hayashi Y, editors. Rebellion of wildlife. Tokyo: PHP Science World Research Center; 2009. p. 55–78. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  21. Nagata K, Koboyashi T, Yamane M, Tamura A, Kuribayashi H, Takii A. Report of the sika deer (Cervus Nippon) population research for sika deer management. Bull Kanagawa Prefecture Nat Environ Conserv Center. 2006;3:28–36. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  22. Natural England. Chapter 3 Biodiversity. In: State of the natural environment 2008. 2008. Accessed 29 Sept 2017.
  23. Sakamoto M. Book review of “Wildlife issues” by Hayama, S. Enviorn Pollut (Kankyo to kogai). 2002;31:70. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  24. Sakurai R, Enari H. What is human dimensions? Development of social study approach in wildlife management. Wildl Forum 2010; 14(3-4):16–21. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  25. Suzuki K. Monkey damage in the Shimokita Peninsula and farmers’ complicated recognition of the damage: a dilemma between multiple agriculture and animal control measures. J Environ Sociol. 2007;13:184–93. (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  26. Suzuki K. How can we resolve human-wildlife conflicts?: analyses on developing processes of wildlife problems focusing on local people’s cognitive structures. J Environ Sociol. 2008;14:55–69. (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  27. Takeuchi K. Rebuilding the relationship between people and nature: the Satoyama Initiative. Ecol Res. 2010;25:891–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. The Nature Conservation Society of Japan. Wildlife conservation and law from ecological perspectives: toward conservation of biological diversity. Tokyo: Kodansha; 2010. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  29. Tokida K. History of wildlife management in Japan and amendment of the Wildlife Protection and Proper Hunting Act in 2014. Wildl Hum Soc. 2015;3(1):3–11. (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  30. Tsunoda H, Enari H. Chapter 7: Ecological role and social significance of reintroducing wolves in Japan under the shrinking society. In: Paula A, Crussi HF, editors. Wolves: biology, behavior and conservation. New York: Nova Science Publishers; 2012. p. 177–98.Google Scholar
  31. Ueda G, Kanzaki N, Kodera Y. Present conditions of hunter activities and attitudes in Shimane Prefecture. Wildl Conserv Jpn. 2004;9(1):9–22. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  32. Ueda G, Kanzaki N, Koganezawa M. Changes in the structure of the Japanese hunter population from 1965 to 2005. Hum Dimens Wildl. 2010;15:16–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ueda G, Kodera Y, Krumada T, Takeuchi M, Sakurai R, Sasaki C. Factors affecting hunting desertion in Japan: proposal for retention measures. Wildl Conserv Jpn. 2012;13(2):47–57.Google Scholar
  34. Watanabe O, Ogura S. Relationship between perceptions toward wildlife values and opinions about wildlife management policy in rural areas of central Japan. Wildl Conserv Jpn. 1996;2(1):1–15. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  35. Yamabata N. Mitigate effect on damage to food crops achieved by collaboration of a whole village for chase-off of monkeys: verification in 6 area of Mie Prefecture. J Rural Plan. 2010a;28:273–8. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yamabata N. Effect of improved countermeasures to agricultural damage by wildlife on farmers’ awareness of farmland management: a study of community in Mie Prefecture. J Rural Plan. 2010b;29:245–50. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamabata N. Effect of chasing away by village on the home range and appearances of a macaques group: verification in 7 area of Mie Prefecture. J Rural Plan. 2011;30:381–6. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yamabata N, Kuki Y, Hoshino S. Did continuous countermeasures against agricultural damage by wildlife effect the settlement’s social capital? Case study in a area of Mie Prefecture. J Rural Plan. 2015;34(3):369–75. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryo Sakurai
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Policy ScienceRitsumeikan UniversityOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations