Epiretinal Membranes and Macular Pseudoholes

  • Jen-Hsiang Shen
  • Wei-Chi Wu
  • Chi-Chun Lai
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)


Epiretinal membrane usually occurs in patients over 50 years old and could be seen in 10–30% of the general population over 70 years old. Bilateral involvement is present in 20% of these patients. Eighty percent of these membranes are idiopathic, while about 20% are secondary to previous retinal detachment, vascular, or inflammatory retinal diseases [1–5].


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jen-Hsiang Shen
    • 1
  • Wei-Chi Wu
    • 2
  • Chi-Chun Lai
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyChang-Gung Memorial HospitalLinkouTaiwan
  2. 2.College of MedicineChang-Gung UniversityTauyuanTaiwan

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