Distributing Water Between Competing Users in the Netherlands

  • Jason F. L. KoopmanEmail author
  • Onno Kuik
  • Richard S. J. Tol
  • Marnix P. van der Vat
  • Joachim C. Hunink
  • Roy Brouwer
Part of the Advances in Applied General Equilibrium Modeling book series (AAGEM)


The Netherlands is a delta country where water is usually abundant. Large investments in water infrastructure aim to prevent flooding, maintain shipping transport routes, irrigate farmland and ensure the health of polder lands and nature. During the limited periods when water is scarce, agriculture is low on the priority list for water allocation: farmers may be restricted in expanding irrigation operations or be even temporarily forbidden from using the equipment already installed. This comes at a cost to agricultural production. Water in this context is a unique economic input that is not privately owned, not always scarce, and not always allocated according to market principles. Nonetheless, the framework of a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) can be very effective in assessing economy-wide changes from periods of water scarcity and weighing this against policy initiatives to reduce water scarcity. In this chapter we explore adaptation possibilities to water scarcity from climate change with a particular focus on the challenges of interpretation of the CGE methodology for water in the context of the Netherlands.


Water scarcity Climate change Computable general equilibrium Water markets 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason F. L. Koopman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Onno Kuik
    • 2
  • Richard S. J. Tol
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Marnix P. van der Vat
    • 5
  • Joachim C. Hunink
    • 5
  • Roy Brouwer
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Wageningen Economic ResearchThe HagueThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Economics, Institute for Environmental StudiesVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsUniversity of SussexFalmerUK
  4. 4.Department of Spatial EconomicsVrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.DeltaresDelftThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Department of Economics and The Water InstituteUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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