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Therapeutic Leishmaniasis: Recent Advancement and Developments in Nanomedicines

  • Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda
  • Om Prakash Singh
  • Onkar Nath Srivastava
  • Shyam Sundar
Chapter

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is a syndrome caused by the protozoan parasites which is transmitted by the bite of the female sand fly. The disease has three major forms: Cutaneous, Mucocutaneous and most fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in affected individuals. Additionally, some of the VL patients (<1%) develop stigmatizing post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) characterized by skin lesions in which parasites can be identified, who is otherwise fully recovered from VL. On the Indian Sub-continent, a joint VL elimination initiative has been launched in 2005 by the Governments of India, Bangladesh and Nepal. The main strategy to achieve this is entrusted to the public sector primary health care (PHC) services that should ensure early diagnosis and treatment of the disease. However, the current therapeutic options for treatment remains limited and treatment of patients are complicated due to the paucity of effective drugs or due to the toxicity caused by the available anti-leishmanial drugs used. Other limitations are the duration of treatment and expenditure on hospitalisation. Besides this, drug resistance in clinical settings has further aggravated the problem to the next level. Therefore, there is a need for cost-effective therapeutic alternatives for an excellent leishmanicidal potential that can be conferred to the target cells with no side effects/toxicity to normal cells, higher efficacy and minimal cost. Nanoparticles, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties, have shown effective environmental, biological and biomedical applications and could be helpful in the detection and elimination of vector-based infectious diseases. In this chapter, we have summarized the current challenges in diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis and discussed the wide range of nanomaterials showing promising applications in leishmaniasis.

Keywords

Nanomedicine Visceral leishmaniasis Diagnosis Drug resistance 

Abbreviations

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

MDR1

Multidrug resistance protein 1

MRPA

Multi-drug resistance associated protein ABC transporter

P-gp

P-glycoprotein

PRP1

Pentamidine resistance protein 1

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by Department of Science & Technology (SR/NM/NS-57/2016), New Delhi (Under nano-mission), and in part by the Extramural Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (TMRC grant number U19AI074321). The funders had no role in design, decision to publish, or preparation of the report.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mallikarjuna Rao Gedda
    • 1
  • Om Prakash Singh
    • 1
  • Onkar Nath Srivastava
    • 2
  • Shyam Sundar
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Institute of Medical SciencesBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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