Advertisement

C-Void: Communication Void Avoidance Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

  • VenkateshEmail author
  • Y. NagarajuEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 835)

Abstract

A node on the routing path can not find suitable next-forwarder(s) in its proximity then communication void problem occurs and node is called as void node. The presence of void nodes on communication path have implications on network performance. In this paper, we proposed communication avoidance (C-void) protocol based on geographic and opportunistic routing concepts. C-void avoids the void communication nodes by readjusting location of void nodes to restore forwarding path. The proposed protocol consists of three steps. In first step, discovery of one hop and two-hop neighbors through beacon. In second step, the candidate node set from neighbor and forwarding nodes from identified candidate set. In the final step, void node discovery and avoidance of void nodes on communication path. Mathematical expressions are derived to discover void nodes in communication paths. To analyze the performance of the proposed C-Void protocol, an extensive simulation have been carried out in NS-2. The simulation results are compared with VBF, DBR and VAPR. The proposed scheme avoids void nodes, improves delivery ratio of packets and energy consumption by 56% and 55% respectively.

Keywords

Communication-void Candidate node Two-hop neighbors Geographic and opportunistic routing 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank all staff members of computer science and engineering.

References

  1. 1.
    Xie, P., Cui, J.-H., Lao, L.: VBF: vector-based forwarding protocol for underwater sensor networks. In: Boavida, F., Plagemann, T., Stiller, B., Westphal, C., Monteiro, E. (eds.) NETWORKING 2006. LNCS, vol. 3976, pp. 1216–1221. Springer, Heidelberg (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11753810_111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yan, H., Shi, Z.J., Cui, J.-H.: DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks. In: Das, A., Pung, H.K., Lee, F.B.S., Wong, L.W.C. (eds.) NETWORKING 2008. LNCS, vol. 4982, pp. 72–86. Springer, Heidelberg (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79549-0_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Noh, Y., Lee, U., Wang, P., Choi, B.S.C., Gerla, M.: Vapr: void-aware pressure routing for underwater sensor networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 12(5), 895–908 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuhn, F., Wattenhofer, R., Zollinger, A.: Worst-case optimal and average-case efficient geometric ad-hoc routing. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing, pp. 267–278. ACM (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coutinho, R.W., Vieira, L.F., Loureiro, A.A.: DCR: depth-controlled routing protocol for underwater sensor networks. In: 2013 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), pp. 000453–000458. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coutinho, R.W., Vieira, L.F., Loureiro, A.A.: Movement assisted-topology control and geographic routing protocol for underwater sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis & Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, pp. 189–196. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zuba, M., Fagan, M., Shi, Z., Cui, J.-H.: A resilient pressure routing scheme for underwater acoustic networks. In: Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2014 IEEE, pp. 637–642. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xie, P., Zhou, Z., Peng, Z., Cui, J.-H., Shi, Z.: Void avoidance in three-dimensional mobile underwater sensor networks. In: Liu, B., Bestavros, A., Du, D.-Z., Wang, J. (eds.) WASA 2009. LNCS, vol. 5682, pp. 305–314. Springer, Heidelberg (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03417-6_30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aissani, M., Mellouk, A., Badache, N., Djebbar, M.: A preventive rerouting scheme for avoiding voids in wireless sensor networks. In: Global Telecommunications Conference. GLOBECOM 2009. IEEE, pp. 1–5. IEEE (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ramayajayanthi, R.G.: Improve void routing coordinate fro wireless sensor networks using quality of services. In: International Journal on Engineering Technology and Sciences IJETS, pp. 2349–3976. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang, D., Dong, E.: A bypassing void routing combining of geographic and virtual coordinate information for WSN. In: 2015 22nd International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT), pp. 118–122. IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lin, C., Wu, G., Li, M., Chen, X., Liu, Z., Yao, L.: A selfish node preventive real time fault tolerant routing protocol for WSNs. In: 2011 International Conference on and 4th International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing Internet of Things (iThings/CPSCom), pp. 330–337. IEEE (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Visvesvaraya College of EngineeringBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations