C-Void: Communication Void Avoidance Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

  • VenkateshEmail author
  • Y. NagarajuEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 835)


A node on the routing path can not find suitable next-forwarder(s) in its proximity then communication void problem occurs and node is called as void node. The presence of void nodes on communication path have implications on network performance. In this paper, we proposed communication avoidance (C-void) protocol based on geographic and opportunistic routing concepts. C-void avoids the void communication nodes by readjusting location of void nodes to restore forwarding path. The proposed protocol consists of three steps. In first step, discovery of one hop and two-hop neighbors through beacon. In second step, the candidate node set from neighbor and forwarding nodes from identified candidate set. In the final step, void node discovery and avoidance of void nodes on communication path. Mathematical expressions are derived to discover void nodes in communication paths. To analyze the performance of the proposed C-Void protocol, an extensive simulation have been carried out in NS-2. The simulation results are compared with VBF, DBR and VAPR. The proposed scheme avoids void nodes, improves delivery ratio of packets and energy consumption by 56% and 55% respectively.


Communication-void Candidate node Two-hop neighbors Geographic and opportunistic routing 



Authors would like to thank all staff members of computer science and engineering.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Visvesvaraya College of EngineeringBangaloreIndia

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