A Dimensional Analysis Across India to Study How National Cultural Diversity Affects Website Designs

  • Surbhi PratapEmail author
  • Jyoti Kumar
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 135)


Role of culture in design of artifacts is a well-recognized concept in literature. Several attempts to measure cultural differences at behavioral and artifactual levels have been reported. Isolated attempts to relate differences in designs to cultural differences have also been discussed both in the context of interaction design and other artifacts. However, most of the studies on influence of cultural differences on designed interactions have been focused on national cultures. This paper reports identification of different cultural zones within India, a country known for its cultural diversity and then relates the differences found in websites of those zones with the findings. Three zones within India were identified based on the literature and total of 340 participants from the identified zones were surveyed using the Value Survey Module 2013. The findings were correlated with total of 12-zone specific websites. The results showed that within India as a national culture there are distinct subcultural zones and they are significantly represented in design elements of interactive websites. Findings of this study can be used by interaction design community to develop culturally sensitive websites and develop better user experiences for localized design services within India.


Cultural dimensions Indian website users Localized designs 


  1. 1.
    Burgmann, I., Kitchen, P.J., Williams, R.: Does culture matter on the web? Mark. Intell. Plann. 24, 62–76 (2006). Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fill, C.: Marketing communications: contexts, strategies, and applications [internet]. Prentice Hall (2002). Euro-Par 2006.: LNCS, vol. 4128, pp. 1148–1158. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Salgado, L., Pereira, R., Gasparini, I.: Cultural issues in HCI: challenges and opportunities. lecture notes in computer science. pp. 60–70. (2015) Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gefen, D., Geri, N., Paravastu, N.: Vive la Différence. Advances in e-collaboration. pp. 1–12.
  5. 5.
    De Castro Salgado, L.C., Leitão, C.F., De Souza, C.S.: A journey through cultures: metaphors for guiding the design of cross-cultural interactive systems. Springer, Berlin (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Smith, P.B., Dugan, S., Trompenaars, F.: National culture and the values of organizational employees. J. Cross Cult. Psychol. 27, 231–264 (1996). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Myers, M.D., Tan, F.B.: Beyond models of national culture in information systems research. J. Global. Inform. Manage. 10, 24–32 (2002). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chapter 4.: Joyce and his critics: notes toward the definition of culture. Culture (1922)
  9. 9.
    Hofstede, G.: Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations [internet]. Sage Publications, California (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lipman, A., Hall, E.T.: The hidden dimension. Br. J. Sociol. 21, 353 (1970) Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall, E.T.: The silent language. (1969)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chan, C.M., Makino, S., Isobe, T.: Does subnational region matter? Foreign affiliate performance in the United states and China. Strat. Mgmt. J. 31, 1226–1243 (2010). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nishimura, S., Nevgi, A., Tella, S.: Communication style and cultural features in high/low context communication cultures: a case study of Finland, Japan and India. In: Kallioniemi, A. (ed.) Renovating and Developing Didactics. Proceedings of a Subject-Didactic Symposium in Helsinki. Part 2. Research Report 299, pp. 783–796. University of Helsinki. Department of Applied Sciences of Education, 2 Feb 2008Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Opler, M.E., Kluckhohn, F.R., Strodtbeck, F.L.: Variations in value orientations. Ethnohistory. 8, 428 (1961) Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kluckhohn, F.R, Strodtbeck, F.L.: Variations in value orientations [internet] (1976)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J.: Cultures and organizations: software for the mind [internet]. McGraw Hill Professional, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Trompenaars, F., Hampden-turner, C.: Riding the waves of culture: understanding diversity in global business [internet]. Nicholas Brealey Publishing, Boston (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Victor, D.A.: International business communication [internet]. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (1992)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schwartz, SH.: Schwartz value survey [internet]. Psyctests Dataset (1992)
  20. 20.
    Rokeach, M.: Rokeach value survey [internet]. Psyctests Dataset (1973)
  21. 21.
    Reinecke, K.: Harvard school of engineering and applied sciences, Bernstein a, University of Zurich. Knowing what a user likes: a design science approach to interfaces that automatically adapt to culture. Miss Q. 37, 427–453 (2013) Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marcus, A., Baumgartner, V.J.: A practical set of culture dimensions for global user-interface development. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. pp. 252–261 (2004) Scholar
  23. 23.
    McSweeney, B.: Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: a triumph of faith-a failure of analysis. Hum. Relat. 55, 89–118 (2002). Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J.: Values survey module 2013 [Test and manual]. Unpublished instrument. Retrieved from (2013)
  25. 25.
    Racial classification of Indian people (by different anthropologist). In: your article library [internet]. 19 Jun 2014. Available:
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    Reinecke, K., Bernstein, A.: Improving performance, perceived usability, and aesthetics with culturally adaptive user interfaces. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 18, 1–29 (2011) Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lenartowicz, T., Roth, K.: J. Int. Bus. Stud. 32, 305 (2001). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DesignIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations