Advertisement

Positive Behavior Support Model for Inclusion of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Santoshi Halder
Chapter

Abstract

Individuals with disabilities often engage in disruptive behavior that entails challenges not only for their own quality of life but also the lives of others around them. In spite of the abilities of the children with disabilities due to the severe challenges experienced by the teachers, parents and also the child themselves for the inability to address the behavior needs it act as a major hindrances for inclusion in classroom and community lives. Exclusion from classroom, school and community leads to less scope for social development and thereby leads to isolation, aloofness and developmental deficits. Henceforth addressing the problem behavior remains the first step for participation and inclusion of children with developmental disabilities including other behavior needs. However teacher faces the skill deficit to identify the function of the behavior to arrive at the most suitable intervention to best meet the needs of the child. The significance of functional analyses (FA) for determining the function of problem behavior has been paramount so that a well tailored intervention can be designed that will be function based and most effective. With this objective the present study examines the application of trial-based functional analyses for determining the function of problem behavior of a 7 year old child with autism in a classroom setting following the single subject design research. Findings indicate effective way of determining the function of head hitting as target problem behavior followed with a function-based intervention. The proposed model can assist and empower the teachers and also parents for providing positive behavior support which further opens up access to an inclusion classroom.

Keywords

Functional analyses Trial-based FA Child with autism Problem behavior Head hitting Self-injurious behavior 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author acknowledges the guidance and support by Ms. Julliane Bell, BCBA, for all through the experiment. Also sincere thanks to Behavior Momentum India (BMI) and the Autism Center, (NGO) Kolkata for the enthusiasm and support all through.

References

  1. Asmus, J. M., Ringdahl, J. E., Sellers, J. A., Call, N. A., Andelman, M. S., & Wacker, D. P. (2001). Use of a Short-Term Inpatient Model to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior: Outcome Data Summaries from 1996 to 2001. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 283–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beavers, G. A., Iwata, B. A., & Lerman, D. C. (2013). Thirty Years of Research on the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berg, W. K., Wacker, D. P., Harding, J. W., Ganzer, J., & Barretto, A. (2007). An Evaluation of Multiple Dependent Variables Across Distinct Classes of Antecedent Stimuli Pre and Post Functional Communication Training. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention, 4(1), 305–333.Google Scholar
  4. Bloom, S. E., Iwata, B. A., Fritz, J. N., Roscoe, E. M., & Carreau, A. B. (2011). Classroom Application of a Trial-Based Functional Analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(1), 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carr, J. E., LeBlanc, L. A., & Love, J. R. (2009). Experimental Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior. In W. T. O’Donohue & J. E. Fisher (Eds.), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: Applying Empirically Supported Techniques in Your Practice (2nd ed., pp. 211–221). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  7. Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools: Functional Behavioral Assessment. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  8. Dufrene, B. A., Doggett, R. A., Henington, C., & Watson, T. S. (2007). Functional Assessment and Intervention for Disruptive Classroom Behaviors in Preschool and Head Start Classrooms. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16, 368–388.Google Scholar
  9. Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., et al. (2012). Autism Research, INSAR, Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gettinger, M., & Stoiber, K. C. (2006). Functional Assessment, Collaboration, and Evidence-Based Treatment: Analysis of a Team Approach for Addressing Challenging Behaviors in Young Children. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 231–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & McCord, B. E. (2003). Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior: A Review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 147–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harding, J. W., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Lee, J. F., & Dolezal, D. (2009). Conducting Functional Communication Training in Home Settings: A Case Study and Recommendations for Practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2(1), 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iwata, B. A., & Dozier, C. L. (2008). Clinical Application of Functional Analysis Methodology. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 1(1–9), 35.Google Scholar
  14. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1982/1994). Towards a Functional Analysis of Self-Injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197–209.Google Scholar
  15. Jensen, J. (2011). Classroom Application of Traial-Based Functional Analysis in an Early Childhood Education Setting. A Thesis in Masters in Science, Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Utah State University.Google Scholar
  16. Kates-McElrath, K., & Axelrod, S. (2008). Functional Assessment in Public Schools: A Tool for Classroom Teachers. Speaker’s Journal, 8.9, 83–96.Google Scholar
  17. Kelly, M. L., Reitman, D., & Noell, G. R. (2003). Practitioners Guide to Empirically Based Measures of School Behavior. New York: Kluwer Academic Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kodak, T., Fisher, W. W., Paden, A., & Nitasha Dickes, N. (2013). Evaluation of the Utility of a Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis in Early Intervention Classrooms. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46(1), 301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kurtz, P. F., Chin, M. D., Huete, J. M., Tarbox, R. S. F., O’Connor, J. T., Paclawskyj, T. R., et al. (2003). Functional Analysis and Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior in Young Children: A Summary of 30 Cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 205–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lambert, J. M., & Bloom, S. E. (2012). Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training in an Early Childhood Setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(3), 579–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lambert, J. M., Bloom, S. E., & Irvin, J. (2012). Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training in an Early Childhood Setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(3), 579–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lang, R., O’Reilly, M. F., Lancioni, G., Machalicek, W., Rispoli, M., & Chan, J. (2008). A Comparison of Functional Analysis Results When Conducted in Contrived Versus Naturalistic Settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 441–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewit, E. M., & Schuurmann Baker, L. (1996). Children in Special Education. Special Education for Children with Disabilities, 6, 139–151.Google Scholar
  24. Mace, F. C. (1994). The Significance and Future of Functional Analysis Methodologies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Meador, D. M., & Osborn, R. G. (1992). Prevalence of Severe Behavior Disorders in Persons with Mental Retardation and Treatment Procedures Used in Community and Institutional Settings. Behavioral Residential Treatment, 7, 299–314.Google Scholar
  26. Pelios, L., Morren, J., Tesch, D., & Axelrod, S. (1999). The Impact of Functional Analysis Methodology on Treatment Choice for Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reichow, B., Boyd, B. A., Barton, E. E., & Odom, S. L. (2013). Handbook of Early Childhood Special Education. Sage, 25(1), 35–48.Google Scholar
  28. Rispoli, M., Ninci, J., Neeli, L., & Jaini, S. (2014). A Systematic Review of Trial Based Functional Analyses of Challenging Behaviour. Journal of Physical Developmental Disabilities, 26, 271–283.Google Scholar
  29. Rispoli, M., Burke, M. D., Hatton, H., Ninci, J., Zaini, S., & Rodriguez, L. (2015). Training Head Start Teachers to Conduct Trial – Based Functional Analyses of Challenging Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 17, 235–244.Google Scholar
  30. Sigafoos, J., & Saggers, E. (1995). A Discrete-Trial Approach to the Functional Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Two Boys with Autism. Australia & New Zealand Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 20, 287–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tiger, J. H., Hanley, G. P., & Bruzek, J. (2008). Functional Communication Training: A Review and Practical Guide. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 1, 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Harding, J. W., Derby, K. M., Asmus, J. M., & Healy, A. (1998). Evaluation and Long-Term Treatment of Aberrant Behavior Displayed by Young Children with Disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 260–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wacker, D. P., Harding, J. W., Berg, W. K., Lee, J. F., Schieltz, K. M., Padilla, Y. C., et al. (2011). An Evaluation of Persistence of Treatment Effects During Long-Term Treatment of Destructive Behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 96, 261–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilder, D. A., Harris, C., Reagan, R., & Rasey, A. (2007). Functional Analysis and Treatment of Noncompliance by Preschool Children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 173–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santoshi Halder
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EducationUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations