Surface Characterization of Nickel-Base Superalloy Powder

  • Wenyong XuEmail author
  • Yufeng Liu
  • Hua Yuan
  • Zhou Li
  • Guoqing Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 217)


The chemical composition and thickness of the oxide layer on the nickel-base superalloy powder significantly determined the quality of the powder metallurgy nickel-base superalloy and subsequent mechanical properties. To investigate the oxidation behavior of the nickel-base superalloy powders, the surface layer of as-atomized superalloy powder was systematically characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. The results show that the oxygen in nickel-base superalloy powders is mainly present as thin surface oxide layer with a thickness of about 7 nm. The heterogeneous oxide, including TiO2, Cr2O3, and Al2O3, hydroxide Ni(OH)2 and absorptive H2O are observed at the surface layer of the superalloy powders.


Powder metallurgy Superalloy Oxidation 



This work was financially supported by National key R&D program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB0305801). In addition, the author would appreciate Dr. Liu Chen for his kindly help.


  1. 1.
    G.H. Gessinger, Powder Metallurgy of Superalloys (Cambridge University Press, London, 1984)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Oikonomou, D. Nikas, E. Hryha, L. Nyborg, The Superalloys Fundamentals and Application (Cambridge University Press, London, 2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Chang, W. Sun, Y. Cui, R. Yang, Preparation of hot-isostatic-pressed powder metallurgy superalloy Inconel 718 free of prior particle boundaries. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 682, 341–344 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Ning, C. Zhou, H. Liang, M.W. Fu, Abnormal flow behavior and necklace microstructure of powder metallurgy superalloys with previous particle boundaries (PPBs). Mater. Sci. Eng., A 652, 84–91 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Z. Gao et al., Surface segregation and oxidation behavior of superalloy powders fabricated by argon atomization. Mater. Sci. Forum 747–748, 518–525 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Appa Rao, M. Srinivas, D.S. Sarma, Effect of oxygen content of powder on microstructure and mechanical properties of hot isostatically pressed superalloy Inconel 718. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 435–436, 85–93 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. Liu, Z. Li, G. Zhang, Oxidation characteristics of nickel-based superalloy powders prepared by argon gas atomization. Chin. J. Rare Met. 35, 481–485 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Chaspglou, E. Hryha, M. Norell, L. Nyborg, Characterization of surface oxides on water-atomized steel powder by XPS/AES depth profiling and nano-scale lateral surface analysis. Appl. Surf. Sci. 268, 496–506 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.W. Nesbitt, D. Legrand, G.M. Bancroft, Interpretation of Ni2p XPS spectra of Ni conductors and Ni insulators. Phys. Chem. Miner. 27, 357–366 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Oikonomou, D. Nikas, E. Hruha, Evaluation of the thickness and roughness of homogeneous surface layers on spherical and irregular powder particles. Surf. Interface Anal. 46, 1028–1032 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.V. Sundaram, E. Hryha, L. Nyborg, XPS analysis of oxide transformation during sintering of chromium alloyed PM steels. Powder Metall. Prog. 14, 85–93 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Bracconi, L. Nyborg, Quantitative phase analysis and thickness measurement of surface-oxide layers in metal and alloy powders by the chemical granular method. Appl. Surf. Sci. 133, 129–147 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    X. Luo, Surface oxide analysis of lead free solder particles. Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 25, 39–44 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Karlsson, L. Nyborg, S. Berg, Surface chemical analysis of prealloyed water atomized steel powder. Powder Metall. 48, 51–58 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenyong Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yufeng Liu
    • 1
  • Hua Yuan
    • 1
  • Zhou Li
    • 1
  • Guoqing Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials LaboratoryAECC Beijing Institute of Aeronautical MaterialsBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations