Green vs Revenue: Data Center Profit Maximization Under Green Degree Constraints

  • Huaiwen He
  • Hong ShenEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 931)


With the soaring personal and enterprise computation demands, the scale of cloud centers has been rapidly increasing, which leads to massive amounts of greenhouse gas emission. From the cloud service provider’s (CSP) perspective, profit is the key factor to maintain the development of cloud centers, which potentially conflicts with the goal of achieving green data centers for environment protection because the expensive renewable energy will add more cost. This paper addresses the problem of maximizing profit while meeting the green degree constraints for a large scale data center on renewable energy source. Taking into account of the bursty randomness of workload, time-varying electricity price and intermittent green energy, we first formulate the problem in an optimization framework with stochastic constraints for delay-tolerant workload. Then, we show how the deployment of Lyapunov optimization technique can leverage to obtain a low-complexity online solution for profit maximization by combining request admission control, workload scheduling and power management. Moreover, we adopt a non-linear submodular revenue function to optimize the throughput of the system. By decoupling the optimization function of a time average problem into three sub-problems, we solve them to obtain the optimal control strategies. Our proposed algorithm achieves a desirable profit-green tradeoff. At the end, we provide the performance bound of our algorithm, and evaluate its performance through extensive trace-driven simulations.


Profit maximization Stochastic constraints Renewable energy Lyapunov optimization 



This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China Project under Grant 2017YFB0203201, Australian Research Council Discovery Projects funding DP150104871, Training Program for Outstanding Young Teachers in Higher Education Institutions of Guangdong Province (No. YQ2015241), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2016A030313018), Science and Technology Project of Zhongshan City (No. 2017B1130, No. 2015B2307).


  1. 1.
    Kong, F., Liu, X.: A survey on green-energy-aware power management for datacenters. ACM Comput. Surv. 47(2), 1–38 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou, A., et al.: Maximizing the profits of cloud service providers via dynamic virtual resource renting approach. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2015(1), 71 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Google, Google’s environmental report (2016).
  4. 4.
    Mahmud, A.H., Ren, S.: Online capacity provisioning for carbon-neutral data center with demand-responsive electricity prices. ACM SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev. 41(2), 26–37 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yuan, H., et al.: Time-aware multi-application task scheduling with guaranteed delay constraints in green data center. IEEE Trans. Autom. Sci. Eng. PP(99), 1–14 (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ghamkhari, M., Mohsenian-Rad, H.: Energy and performance management of green data centers: a profit maximization approach. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 4(2), 1017–1025 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang, H., et al.: Randomization improving online time-sensitive revenue maximization for green data centers. In: Green Computing Conference and Sustainable Computing Conference (2015)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu, F., et al.: On arbitrating the power-performance tradeoff in SaaS clouds. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 25(10), 2648–2658 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kiani, A., Ansari, N.: Profit maximization for geographical dispersed green data centers. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid PP(99), 1 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    He, H., Shen, H.: Green-Aware online resource allocation for geo-distributed cloud data centers on multi-source energy. In: International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Campaign Monitor. http://www.campaignmonitor
  12. 12.
    Neely, M.J.: Stochastic network optimization with application to communication and queueing systems. Synth. Lect. Commun. Netw. 3(1), 211 (2010)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, X.: GreenWare: greening cloud-scale data centers to maximize the use of renewable energy. In: ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing (2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Measurement and instrumentation data center (2018).

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Data and Computer ScienceSun Yat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  3. 3.School of ComputerUniversity of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Zhongshan InstituteZhongshanChina

Personalised recommendations