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The Myometrium: From Excitation to Contractions and Labour

  • Susan WrayEmail author
  • Clodagh Prendergast
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1124)

Abstract

We start by describing the functions of the uterus, its structure, both gross and fine, innervation and blood supply. It is interesting to note the diversity of the female’s reproductive tract between species and to remember it when working with different animal models. Myocytes are the overwhelming cell type of the uterus (>95%) and our focus. Their function is to contract, and they have an intrinsic pacemaker and rhythmicity, which is modified by hormones, stretch, paracrine factors and the extracellular environment. We discuss evidence or not for pacemaker cells in the uterus. We also describe the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in some detail, as it is relevant to calcium signalling and excitability. Ion channels, including store-operated ones, their contributions to excitability and action potentials, are covered. The main pathway to excitation is from depolarisation opening voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Much of what happens downstream of excitability is common to other smooth muscles, with force depending upon the balance of myosin light kinase and phosphatase. Mechanisms of maintaining Ca2+ balance within the myocytes are discussed. Metabolism, and how it is intertwined with activity, blood flow and pH, is covered. Growth of the myometrium and changes in contractile proteins with pregnancy and parturition are also detailed. We finish with a description of uterine activity and why it is important, covering progression to labour as well as preterm and dysfunctional labours. We conclude by highlighting progress made and where further efforts are required.

Keywords

Uterus Electrophysiology Pace-making Calcium signalling Sarcoplasmic reticulum Parturition 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Harris-Wellbeing Preterm Birth Centre, Institute of Translational MedicineUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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