Lossy Thin Loops and Rings
As the frequency of the driving source approaches 100–200 GHz, the metal begins to take on dielectric characteristics. This is captured using an extended Drude and critical point model of the index of refraction. The resulting effect on the governing equation of the loop is fully captured by adding a complex surface impedance term to every modal impedance. This chapter describes this phenomenon in some detail. The relationship between surface impedance and the index of refraction is derived and its effects on the input impedance and on the RLC circuit model of the loop are analysed. These effects add up to a saturation phenomenon of the resonance of the loop. In other words, the loop will not resonate much above 75 THz no matter how small the loop becomes. The final sections of the chapter characterise the effect on the radiation formulae and on radiation losses of the loop.
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