Fluoride Contamination and Health Effects: An Indian Scenario

  • Ganesh Chandra Kisku
  • Pokhraj Sahu


Uncontaminated water is the prime requirement of drinking water and lifeline of living organisms. Although some of the minerals are essential for growth and healthy development, excessive buildup of these minerals, viz. fluoride, can pose a great health risk to flora and fauna. Fluoride is a vital element for developments and strengthens of teeth and bones, but its elevated levels are associated with many incurable negative health effects reported on human and animals in all over India. The dental caries causes due to very low concentration of fluoride < 0.5 mg/L in drinking water and excessive fluoride (> 1.5 mg/L) also causes to dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and neurotoxin effect, muscles degeneration, gastrointestinal system, reproductive system, etc. The effects of fluoride illness are more prevalent in children than adults. Therefore preliminary knowledge becomes necessary for everyone to know about the fluoride concentration in the drinking water, daily diets and other environmental matrix to avoid chronic fluoride diseases. The foremost sources of fluoride in groundwater are geogenic in origin, but the secondary sources are industrial activity like phosphate fertilizers, coal-based power plant and ceramic and glass industry. The higher concentrations of fluoride have been reported in Rajasthan (0.2–69.0 mg/L), Haryana (0.17–48 mg/L), Delhi (0.4–32 mg/L), Gujarat (1.58–31 mg/L) and Assam (0.2–23 mg/L). This chapter covers the fluoride-related issues and discusses the magnitude of problems those occurring in India and possible preventive measures and preventive programmes initiated by the Government of India.


Fluoride Groundwater Dental and skeletal fluorosis Environmental matrix Hydrogeochemistry 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ganesh Chandra Kisku
    • 1
  • Pokhraj Sahu
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Monitoring LaboratoryCSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia

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