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Molecular Diagnosis of Gall Bladder Cancer

  • Rajani Rai
  • Saumyak Gosai
  • Chinthalapally V. Rao
  • Vishal ChandraEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Worldwide, gallbladder cancer (GBC) is comparatively rare but highly fatal and the most common biliary tree malignancy with gender and geographical-specific predilections that associate with the incidence of cholelithiasis. Morphological feature and anatomic location of gallbladder along with asymptomatic and aggressive nature of the disease progression are ascribed to advance stage diagnosis, poor prognosis thereby compromising GBC patient’s survival rate. Only 20% of GBC patients are diagnosed early with cancer progression limited to gallbladder while rest of the patients are diagnosed with metastasis to adjacent or distant organs. Currently, the available treatment option includes surgical removal of the non-metastatic and small-sized tumor or radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy in advanced stages with various side effects accounting for global health burden. With the recent advancement in better understanding of GBC pathogenesis, several markers have been proposed and evaluated for diagnostic efficiency in GBC. However, none of the markers identified so far has been developed for routine screening examination for GBC and still, there is lack of appropriate molecular diagnostic markers for its early detection and improve prognoses. Till today the complete treatment of GBCs remains unsatisfactory and a major challenge facing a bottleneck. In this chapter, we will focus on the GBC pathogenesis, available diagnostic methods and recent development in the molecular diagnostic methods that may provide future research directions for early detection of this deadly disease.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajani Rai
    • 1
  • Saumyak Gosai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chinthalapally V. Rao
    • 3
  • Vishal Chandra
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA
  2. 2.McAllen Family Medicine Residency ProgramMcAllenUSA
  3. 3.Hematology/Oncology Section, Department of MedicineCenter for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development, Stephenson Cancer Center (SCC), University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (OUHSC)Oklahoma CityUSA

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