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Molecular Diagnostics in Renal Cancer

  • Barkha Singhal Sanganeria
  • Radhieka Misra
  • Kamla Kant Shukla
Chapter

Abstract

Renal cancer is an aggressive and incurable disease with a worldwide prevalence that ranks it to be twelfth most common type of cancer. According to world cancer statistics, around 338,000 new kidney cancer incidences are diagnosed annually. Renal cancer is caused by various sporadic or familial mutations that lead to the accumulation of genomic aberrations enough to impair cell proliferation and differentiation. Epigenetic factors such as hypermethylation also adds up to the malignancy. Kidney heterogeneity makes it really tough to treat renal cancer since (a) different cells are affected in different types of renal cancer, and (b) diagnosis is very incidental and the symptoms appear only in the advance stages. Kidney cancer can be detected by conventional methods based on tumor morphology and tissue histology, while radical nephrectomy or more recently nephron-sparing surgery is the only treatment available in advance cancer stages. Evolvement of molecular techniques and integration in transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, has lead to the quantification of a wide range of chemical fingerprints left behind by alterations caused by different types of renal cancer at earlier stages. These non-invasive biomarkers has the potential to detect renal cancer before they metastasize, improve cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and provide more personalized and targeted therapies in patient care. In this chapter, we have summarized the various molecular techniques and renal cancer biomarkers available to detect early stages with a possibility to have clinical implications in near future.

Keywords

Renal cancer diagnosis Renal cancer biomarkers Clear cell carcinoma RCC Renal molecular diagnosis Molecular techniques Immunoassay NGS Non-invasive biomarkers 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barkha Singhal Sanganeria
    • 1
  • Radhieka Misra
    • 2
  • Kamla Kant Shukla
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Transplant and Renal ResearchWestmead Institute for Medical ResearchWestmeadAustralia
  2. 2.Era’s Lucknow Medical College and HospitalLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryAll India Institute of Medical SciencesJodhpurIndia

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