Intracerebral Haemorrhage

  • Rohit Bhatia
  • N. Shobha
  • Pablo Garcia Bermejo
  • Dar Dowlatshahi


Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Spontaneous or non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the commonest of all haemorrhagic strokes [1]. It represents the second most common cause of stroke, with an incidence of 8–15% in Australia, the UK and the USA and 25% in Japan [2]. An overall high incidence of ICH is reported in Asians compared with the Caucasian population [3]. Although ICH occurs less frequently than ischaemic stroke, mortality rates are higher—50% for ICH versus 20% for ischaemic strokes. Depending on the aetiology, ICH can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary ICH, which occurs more frequently (78–88%), is caused by the rupture of a vessel usually degenerated by mechanisms such as hypertension [4] or an underlying amyloid angiopathy. Secondary ICH occurs from other disorders that predispose to bleeding. Predilection sites for ICH include the basal ganglia (40–50%), lobar regions (20–50%), thalamus (10–15%), pons (5–12%), cerebellum (5–10%) and other brain stem sites (1–5%). Intraventricular haemorrhage occurs in approximately one-third of cases of ICH from extension of bleeding into the ventricular space and carries a worse prognosis. The 30-day mortality in ICH is high (35–52%) and is associated with a high morbidity, as only 10% of the patients are independent at 30 days and 20% at 6 months.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rohit Bhatia
    • 1
  • N. Shobha
    • 2
  • Pablo Garcia Bermejo
    • 3
  • Dar Dowlatshahi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Bangalore Neuro CentreVagus Superspeciality Hospital, Bhagwan Mahaveer Jain HospitalBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of NeurosciencesHospital Universitari Germans Trias, Universitat Autónoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Department of MedicineUniversity of Ottawa, Ottawa Hospital Research InstituteOttawaCanada

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