Carbon Dynamics in Salt-affected Soils

  • Ashim Datta
  • Raj Setia
  • Arijit Barman
  • Yang Guo
  • Nirmalendu Basak


Salinity and sodicity are major constraints for crop production in arid and semiarid regions of the world. Soil fertility and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are strongly affected by soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover. Salt affects soil C pools and CO2 emission by (i) plant growth as well as C input reduction and (ii) reducing microbial activity and thus C turnover due to osmotic stress in saline soils or poor soil structure in sodic soils. Due to lesser plant growth, and C input, SOC content is low in salt-affected soils. This review has identified many technologies (including phytoremediation, changes in land use, organic amendments, irrigation and tillage) that have been practised to increase SOC stocks in salt-affected soils. Many models for SOC sequestration used by various agencies do not take into account the effect of salt and therefore, provide incorrect data on SOC dynamics in salt-affected soils of India and world. With the predicted increase in area affected by salinity, it is important to develop the management practices and technologies which will not only reclaim salt-affected soils but also increase carbon content to restore the fertility of these soils.


Carbon dynamics Salt-affected soils Soil organic carbon Soil inorganic carbon Soil health Carbon pool 


  1. Abdou F, El-Kobbia T, Sorensen L (1975) Decomposition of native organic matter and 14C-labelled barley straw in different Egyptian soils. Beitr Trop Landwirtsch Veterinärmed 13:203–209Google Scholar
  2. Bajwa MS, Swarup A (2002) Soil salinity and alkalinity. In: Goswami NN, Rattan RK, Dev G, Narayanasamy G, Das DK, Sanyal SK, Pal DK, Rao DLN (eds) Fundamentals of soil science. Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp 329–347Google Scholar
  3. Batjes NH (1996) Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. Eur J Soil Sci 47:151–163Google Scholar
  4. Ben-dor E, Banin A (1995) Near-infrared analysis as a rapid method to simultaneously evaluate several soil properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:364–372Google Scholar
  5. Ben-dor E, Irons JR, Epema GF (1999) Soil reflectance. In: Rencz AN (ed) Manual of remote sensing, remote sensing for the earth sciences, vol 3. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 111–188Google Scholar
  6. Ben-Gal A, Borochov-Neori H, Yermiyahu U, Shani U (2009) Is osmotic potential a more appropriate property than electrical conductivity for evaluating whole-plant response to salinity? Environ Exp Bot 65:232–237Google Scholar
  7. Bowers SA, Hanks RJ (1965) Reflection of radiant energy from soils. Soil Sci 100:130–138Google Scholar
  8. Brady NC, Weil RR (2007) The nature and properties of soils, 14th edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown DJ, Bricklemyer RS, Miller PR (2005) Validation requirements for diffuse reflectance soil characterization models with a case study of VNIR soil C prediction in Montana. Geoderma 129:251–267Google Scholar
  10. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI) (2015) Vision 2050. CSSRI, KarnalGoogle Scholar
  11. Chadwick OA, Kelly EF, Merritts DM, Amundson RG (1994) Carbon-dioxide consumption during soil development. Biogeochemistry 24:115–127Google Scholar
  12. Chowdhury N, Marschner P, Burns RG (2011) Soil microbial activity and community composition: Impact of changes in matric and osmotic potential. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1229–1236Google Scholar
  13. Clark RN (1999) Spectroscopy of rocks & minerals, & principles of spectroscopy. In: Rencz AN (ed) Manual of remote sensing, remote sensing for the earth sciences, vol 3. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 3–58Google Scholar
  14. Coleman K, Jenkinson D (1996) RothC-26.3-A Model for the turnover of carbon in soil. In: Powlson D, Smith P, Smith J (eds) Evaluation of soil organic matter models using existing long-term datasets, NATO ASI series, vol 38. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 237–246Google Scholar
  15. Cozzolino D, Moron A (2006) Potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and chemometrics to predict soil organic carbon fractions. Soil Tillage Res 85:78–85Google Scholar
  16. Dalal RC (1989) Long-term effects of no-tillage, crop residue, and nitrogen application on properties of a Vertisol. Soil Scie Soc Am J 53:1511–1515Google Scholar
  17. Dalal RC, Henry RJ (1986) Simultaneous determination of moisture, organic carbon, & total nitrogen by near infrared reflectance spectrophotometry. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:120–123Google Scholar
  18. Datta A, Mandal B (2018) Production (via N-fertilization) and correction (by liming) of acidity in soils contribute a huge efflux of CO2 to atmosphere: real or arbitrary? Glob Chang Bio 24:3280–3281Google Scholar
  19. Datta A, Basak N, Chaudhari SK, Sharma DK (2015) Soil properties and organic carbon distribution under different land uses in reclaimed sodic soils of North-West India. Geoderma Reg 4:134–146Google Scholar
  20. Datta A Basak N, Chinchmalatpure AR, Banyal R (2017) Effect of land uses on properties of salt affected soils. Annual report, ICAR-CSSRIGoogle Scholar
  21. Dendooven L, Alcántara-Hernández RJ, Valenzuela-Encinas C, Luna-Guido M, Perez-Guevara F, Marsch R (2010) Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in an extreme alkaline saline soil: A review. Soil Biol Biochem 42:865–877Google Scholar
  22. Diacono M, Montemurro F (2010) Long-term effects of organic amendments on soil fertility: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:401–422Google Scholar
  23. Diacono M, Montemurro F (2015) Effectiveness of organic wastes as fertilizers and amendments in salt-affected soils. Agriculture 5:221–230Google Scholar
  24. Emmerich WE (2003) Carbon dioxide fluxes in a semiarid environment with high carbonate soils. Agric For Meteorol 116:91–102Google Scholar
  25. England JR, Rossel RAV (2018) Proximal sensing for soil carbon accounting. SOIL 4:101–122Google Scholar
  26. Entry JA, Sojka RE, Shewmaker GE (2004) Irrigation increases inorganic carbon in agricultural soils. Environ Manage 33:S309–S317Google Scholar
  27. Eshel G, Fine P, Singer MJ (2007) Total soil carbon and water quality: an implication for carbon sequestration. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:397–405Google Scholar
  28. Eswaran H, Van den Berg E, Reich PF, Kimble JM (1995) Global soil C resources. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Levine E, Stewart BA (eds) Soils and global change. CRC/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 27–44Google Scholar
  29. Eswaran H, Reich PF, Kimble JM, Beinroth FH, Padmanabhan E, Moncharoen P (2000) Global carbon stocks. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Eswaran H, Stewart BA (eds) Global climate change and pedogenic carbonates. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 15–25Google Scholar
  30. FAO (2005) The importance of soil organic matter. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  31. Fine AK, van Es HM, Schindelbeck RR (2017) Statistics, scoring functions, and regional analysis of a comprehensive soil health database. Soil Sci Soc Am J 81:589–513Google Scholar
  32. Fornara DA, Steinbeiss S, McNamara NP, Gleixner G, Oakley S, Poulton PR, Macdonald AJ, Bardgett RD (2011) Increases in soil organic carbon sequestration can reduce the global warming potential of long-term liming to permanent grassland. Glob Change Biol 17:1925–1934Google Scholar
  33. Franko U, Crocker G, Grace P, Klir J, Körschens M, Poulton P, Richter D (1997) Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the CANDY model. Geoderma 81:109–120Google Scholar
  34. Ganjegunte G, Ulery A, Niu G, Wu Y (2018) Organic carbon, nutrient, and salt dynamics in saline soil and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) irrigated with treated municipal wastewater. Land Degrad Dev 29:80–90Google Scholar
  35. Garcia C, Hernandez T (1996) Influence of salinity on the biological and biochemical activity of a calciorthird soil. Plant Soil 178:255–263Google Scholar
  36. Garg VK (1998) Interaction of tree crops with a sodic soil environment: potential for rehabilitation of degraded environments. Land Degrad Dev 9:81–93Google Scholar
  37. Ghollarata M, Raiesi F (2007) The adverse effects of soil salinization on the growth of Trifolium alexandrinum L. and associated microbial and biochemical properties in a soil from Iran. Soil Biol Biochem 39:1699–1702Google Scholar
  38. Gros R, Poly F, Jocteur Monrozier L, Faivre P (2003) Plant and soil microbial community responses to solid waste leachates diffusion on grassland. Plant Soil 255:445–455Google Scholar
  39. Guo L, Falloon P, Coleman K, Zhou B, Li Y, Lin E, Zhang F (2007) Application of the RothC model to the results of long term experiments on typical upland soils in northern China. Soil Use Manag 23:63–70Google Scholar
  40. Gupta RK, Abrol IP (1990) Salt-affected soils: their reclamation and management for crop production. Adv Soil Sci 11:223–228Google Scholar
  41. Hummel JW, Sudduth KA, Hollinger SE (2001) Soil moisture and organic matter prediction of surface and subsurface soils using an NIR soil sensor. Comput Electron Agric 32(2):149–165Google Scholar
  42. Hunt GR (1982) Spectroscopic properties of rocks and minerals. In: Carmichael RS (ed) Handbook of physical properties of rocks. CRC Press, Florida, pp 295–385Google Scholar
  43. Ingleby HR, Crowe TG (2000) Reflectance models for predicting organic carbon in Saskatchewan soils. Can Agric Eng 42:57–63Google Scholar
  44. Izaurralde R, McGill W, Jans-Hammermeister D, Haugen-Korzyra K, Hiley J (1996) Development of a technique to calculate carbon fluxes in agricultural soils at the ecodistrict level using simulation models and various aggregation methods. Interim Report, Submitted to the Scientific Authority of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Greenhouse Gas Initiative, University of Alberta, EdmontonGoogle Scholar
  45. Izaurralde RC, Rice CW, Wielopolski L, Ebinger MH, Reeves JB III et al (2013) Evaluation of three field-based methods for quantifying soil carbon. PLoS One 8(1):e55560PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Jenkinson D (1990) The turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Philos Trans Biol Sci 329:361–368Google Scholar
  47. Jenkinson D, Hart P, Rayner J, Parry L (1987) Modelling the turnover of organic matter in long-term experiments at Rothamsted. Intecol Bull 15:1–8Google Scholar
  48. Jensen L, Mueller T, Nielsen N, Hansen S, Crocker G, Grace P, Klir J, Körschens M, Poulton P (1997) Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the soil-plant-atmosphere model DAISY1. Geoderma 81:5–28Google Scholar
  49. Ji W, ViscarraRossel RA, Shi Z (2015) Accounting for the effects of water and the environment on proximally sensed vis-NIR soil spectra and their calibrations. Eur J Soil Sci 66:555–565Google Scholar
  50. Kamoni P, Gicheru P, Wokabi S, Easter M, Milne E, Coleman K, Falloon P, Paustian K, Killian K, Kihanda F (2007) Evaluation of two soil carbon models using two Kenyan long term experimental datasets. Agric, Ecosyst Environ 122:95–104Google Scholar
  51. Kaonga M, Coleman K (2008) Modelling soil organic carbon turnover in improved fallows in eastern Zambia using the RothC-26. 3 model. For Ecol Manag 256:1160–1166Google Scholar
  52. Kaur B, Gupta SR, Singh G (2002) Bioamelioration of a sodic soil by silvopastoral systems in northwestern India. Agrofor Syst 54:13–20Google Scholar
  53. Kessler TJ, Harvey CF (2001) The global flux of carbon dioxide into groundwater. Geophys Res Lett 28:279–282Google Scholar
  54. Khokhlova OS, Arlashina EA, Kovalevskaya IS (1997) The effect of irrigation on the carbonate status of Chernozems of Central Precaucasus (Russia). Soil Technol 11:171–184Google Scholar
  55. Killham K (1994) Soil ecology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  56. Knowles TA, Singh B (2003) Carbon storage in cotton soils of northern New South Wales. Aust J Soil Res 41:889–903Google Scholar
  57. Knox NMS, Grunwald S, McDowell ML, Bruland GJ, Myers DB, Harris WG (2015) Modelling soil carbon fractions with visible near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. Geoderma 239–240:229–239Google Scholar
  58. Kuzyakov Y, Domanski G (2000) Carbon input by plants into the soil. Review. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 163(4):421–431Google Scholar
  59. Lal R (2001) Potential of desertification control to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Clim Change 51:35–72Google Scholar
  60. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lal R, Kimble JM (2000) Pedogenic carbonates and the global carbon cycle. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Eswaran H, Stewart BA (eds) Global climate change and pedogenic carbonates. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  62. Lal R, Follett RF, Stewart BA, Kimble JM (2007) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change and advance food security. Soil Sci 172:943–956Google Scholar
  63. Laura RD (1974) Effects of neutral salts on carbon and nitrogen mineralization of organic matter in soil. Plant Soil 41:113–127Google Scholar
  64. Laura RD (1977) Salinity and nitrogen mineralization in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 9:333–336Google Scholar
  65. Lee KS, Lee DH, Sudduth KA, Chung SO, Kitchen NR, Drummond ST (2009) Wavelength identification and diffuse reflectance estimation for surface and profile soil properties. Trans ASABE 52(3):683–695Google Scholar
  66. Li C, Frolking S, Crocker G, Grace P, Klír J, Körchens M, Poulton P (1997) Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the DNDC model. Geoderma 81:45–60Google Scholar
  67. Liang Y, Nikolic M, Peng Y, Chen W, Jiang Y (2005) Organic manure stimulates biological activity and barley growth in soil subject to secondary salinization. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1185–1195Google Scholar
  68. Mancer H, Bouhoun MD (2018) Effect of irrigation water salinity on the organic carbon mineralization in soil (laboratory incubation). AIP Conf Proc 1968:020007. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Manzoni S, Porporato A (2009) Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization: theory and models across scales. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1355–1379Google Scholar
  70. McClung G, Frankenberger W (1987) Nitrogen mineralization rates in saline vs. salt-amended soils. Plant Soil 104:13–21Google Scholar
  71. McCormick RW, Wolf DC (1980) Effect of sodium chloride on CO2 evolution, ammonification, and nitrification in a Sassafras sandy loam. Soil Biol Biochem 12:153–157Google Scholar
  72. Meena MD, Joshi PK, Jat HS, Chinchmalatpure AR, Narjary B, Sheoran P, Sharm DK (2016) Changes in biological and chemical properties of saline soil amended with municipal solid waste compost and chemical fertilizers in a mustard–pearl millet cropping system. Catena 140:1–8Google Scholar
  73. Minasny B, McBratney AB, Bellon-Maurel V, Roger J-M, Gobrecht A, Ferrand L, Joalland S (2011) Removing the effect of soil moisture from NIR diffuse reflectance spectra for the prediction of soil organic carbon. Geoderma 167(68):118–124Google Scholar
  74. Morgan CLS, Waiser TH, Brown DJ, Hallmark CT (2009) Simulated in situ characterization of soil organic and inorganic carbon with visible near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Geoderma 151(3–4):249–256Google Scholar
  75. Morra MJ, Hall MH, Freeborn LL (1991) Carbon & nitrogen analysis of soil fractions using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55:288–291Google Scholar
  76. Mouazen AM, Maleki MR, Baerdemaeker JDE, Ramon H (2007) On-line measurement of some selected soil properties using a VIS-NIR sensor. Soil Tillage Res 93:13–27Google Scholar
  77. Nakamura S, Hayashi K, Omae H, Ramadjita T, Dougbedji F, Shinjo H, Saidou AK, Tobita S (2010) Validation of soil organic carbon dynamics model in the semi-arid tropics in Niger, West Africa. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst. Google Scholar
  78. Nelson PN, Ladd JN, Oades JM (1996) Decomposition of 14C-labelled plant material in a salt-affected soil. Soil Biol Biochem 28:433–441Google Scholar
  79. Oldfield EE, Wood SA, Bradford MA (2018) Direct effects of soil organic matter on productivity mirror those observed with organic amendments. Plant Soil 423:363–373Google Scholar
  80. Oo AN, Iwai CB, Saenjan P (2013) Soil properties and maize growth in saline and nonsaline soils using cassava-industrial waste compost and vermicompost with or without earthworms. Land Degrad Dev 26:300–310Google Scholar
  81. Oren A (1999) Bioenergetic aspects of halophilism. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63:334–348PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Pankhurst C, Yu S, Hawke B, Harch B (2001) Capacity of fatty acid profiles and substrate utilization patterns to describe differences in soil microbial communities associated with increased salinity or alkalinity at three locations in South Australia. Biol Fertil Soils 33:204–217Google Scholar
  83. Paradelo R, Virto I, Chenu C (2015) Net effect of liming on soil organic carbon stocks: a review. Agricult, Ecosyst Environ 202:98–107Google Scholar
  84. Parras-Alcántara L, Díaz-Jaimes L, Lozano-García B (2013) Organic farming affects c and n in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas. Land Degrad Dev. Google Scholar
  85. Parton WJ, Stewart JWB, Cole CV (1988) Dynamics of C, N, P and S in grassland soils: a model. Biogeochemistry 5:109–131Google Scholar
  86. Pathak H, Rao DLN (1998) Carbon and nitrogen mineralization from added organic matter in saline and alkali soils. Soil Biol Biochem 30:695–702Google Scholar
  87. Paustian K (1994) Modelling soil biology and biochemical processes for sustainable agriculture research. In: Paustian K, Pankhurst C, Doube B, Gupta V, Grace P (eds) Soil biota: management in sustainable farming systems. CSIRO Publications, East Melbourne, pp 182–193Google Scholar
  88. Qadir M, Oster JD (2004) Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture. Sci Total Environ 323:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Qadir M, Schubert S, Ghafoor A, Murtaza G (2001) Amelioration strategies for sodic soils: a review. Land Degrad Dev 12:357–386Google Scholar
  90. Qadir M, Oster JD, Schudert S, Noble AD, Sahrawat KL (2007) Phytoremediation of Sodic and Saline-Sodic Soils. Adv Agron 96:197–247Google Scholar
  91. Rasul G, Appuhn A, Müller T, Joergensen RG (2006) Salinity-induced changes in the microbial use of sugarcane filter cake added to soil. Appl Soil Ecol 31:1–10Google Scholar
  92. Raymond PA, Oh NH, Turner RE, Broussard W (2008) Anthropogenically enhanced fluxes of water and carbon from the Mississippi River. Nature 451:449–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rietz D, Haynes R (2003) Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 35:845–854Google Scholar
  94. Robertson GP, Gross KL, Hamilton SK et al (2014) Farming for ecosystem services: an ecological approach to production agriculture. Bioscience 64:404–415Google Scholar
  95. Sadiq M, Hassan G, Mehdi SM, Hussain N, Jamil M (2007) Amelioration of saline-sodic soils with tillage implements and sulfuric acid application. Pedosphere 17:182–190Google Scholar
  96. Saha D, Kukal SS, Bawa SS (2014) Soil organic carbon stock and fractions in relation to land use and soil depth in the degraded shiwaliks hills of lower Himalayas. Land Degrad Dev 25:407–416Google Scholar
  97. Sanderman J (2012) Can management induced changes in the carbonate system drive soil carbon sequestration? A review with particular focus on Australia. Agric, Ecosyst Environ 155:70–77Google Scholar
  98. Sardinha M, Müller T, Schmeisky H, Joergensen RG (2003) Microbial performance in soils along a salinity gradient under acidic conditions. Appl Soil Ecol 23:237–244Google Scholar
  99. Sarig S, Steinberger Y (1994) Microbial biomass response to seasonal fluctuation in soil salinity under the canopy of desert halophytes. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1405–1408Google Scholar
  100. Setia R, Marschner P (2012) Carbon mineralization in saline soils as affected by residue composition and water potential. Biol Fertil Soils 49:71–77Google Scholar
  101. Setia R, Marschner P (2013) Impact of total water potential and varying contribution of matric and osmotic potential on carbon utilization in saline soils. Eur J Soil Biol 56:95–100Google Scholar
  102. Setia R, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D (2010) Is CO2 evolution in saline soils affected by an osmotic effect and calcium carbonate? Biol Fertil Soils 46:781–792Google Scholar
  103. Setia R, Setia D, Marschner P (2011a) Short-term carbon mineralization in saline-sodic soils. Biol Fertil Soils 48:475–479Google Scholar
  104. Setia R, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D, Smith P, Smith J (2011b) Salinity effects on carbon mineralization in soils of varying texture. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1908–1916Google Scholar
  105. Setia R, Smith P, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D, Smith J (2011c) Introducing a decomposition rate modifier in the Rothamsted carbon model to predict soil organic carbon stocks in saline soils. Environ Sci Technol 45:6396–6403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Setia R, Marschner P, Baldock J, Chittleborough D, Verma V (2011d) Relationships between carbon dioxide emission and soil properties in salt affected landscapes. Soil Biol Biochem 43:667–674Google Scholar
  107. Setia R, Smith P, Marschner P, Gottschalk P, Baldock J, Verma V, Setia D, Smith J (2012) Simulation of salinity effects on soil organic carbon: past, present and future carbon stocks. Environ Sci Technol 46:1624–1631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Setia R, Gottschalk P, Smith P, Marschner P, Baldock J, Setia D, Smith J (2013) Soil salinity decreased global soil organic carbon stocks. Sci Tot Environ 465:267–272Google Scholar
  109. Setia R, Rengasamy P, Marschner P (2014) Effect of mono- and divalent cations on sorption of water-extractable organic carbon and microbial activity. Biol Fertil Soils 50:727–734Google Scholar
  110. Shepherd KD, Walsh MG (2002) Development of reflectance spectral libraries for characterization of soil properties. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:988–998Google Scholar
  111. Singh GB, Gill HS (1990) Raising trees in alkali soils. Wasteland News 6:15–18Google Scholar
  112. Singh K, Mishra AK, Singh B, Singh RP, Patra DD (2016) Tillage effects on crop yield and physicochemical properties of sodic soils. Land Degrad Dev 27:223–230Google Scholar
  113. Six J, Conant RT, Pau EA, Paustian K (2002) Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant Soil 241:155–176Google Scholar
  114. Skene T, Oades JM (1995) The effects of sodium adsorption ratio and electrolyte concentration on water quality: laboratory studies. Soil Sci 159:65Google Scholar
  115. Smith P, Smith J, Powlson D, McGill W, Arah J, Chertov O, Coleman K, Franko U, Frolking S, Jenkinson D (1997) A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments. Geoderma 81:153–225Google Scholar
  116. Srivastava R, Prasad J, Saxena RK (2004) Spectral reflectance properties of some shrink-swell soils of Central India as influenced by soil properties. Agropedology 14:45–54Google Scholar
  117. Srivastava R, Sarkar D, Mukhopadhayay SS, Sood A, Singh M, Nasre RA, Dhale SA (2015) Development of hyperspectral model for rapid monitoring of soil organic carbon under precision farming in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Punjab, India. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 43 (4):751–759Google Scholar
  118. Srivastava R, Sethi M, Yadav RK, Bundela DS, Singh M, Chattaraj S, Singh SK, Nasre RA, Bishnoi SR, Dhale S, Mohekar DS, Barthwal AK (2017) Visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for rapid characterization of salt-affected soil in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Haryana, India. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 45(2):307–315Google Scholar
  119. Strudley MW, Green TR, Ascough IIJC (2008) Tillage effects on soil hydraulic properties in space and time: state of the science. Soil Tillage Res 99:4–48Google Scholar
  120. Suarez DL (2000) Impact of agriculture on CO2 as affected by changes in inorganic carbon. In: Lal R, Kimble JM, Eswaran H, Stewart BA (eds) Global climate change and pedogenic carbonates. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 257–272Google Scholar
  121. Summers D, Lewis M, Ostendorf B, Chittleborough D (2011) Visible near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a predictive indicator of soil properties. Ecol Indic 11:123–131Google Scholar
  122. Sverdrup H, Warfvinge P (1988) Weathering of primary silicate minerals in the natural soil environment in relation to a chemical-weathering model. Water Air Soil Pollut 38:387–408Google Scholar
  123. Torn MS, Trumbore SE, Chadwick OA, Vitousek PM, Hendricks DM (1997) Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover. Nature 389:170–173Google Scholar
  124. Tripathi S, Kumari S, Chakraborty A, Gupta A, Chakrabarti K, Bandyapadhyay BK (2006) Microbial biomass and its activities in salt-affected coastal soils. Biol Fertil Soils 42:273–277Google Scholar
  125. Vasques GM, Grunwald S, Sickman JO (2008) Comparison of multivariate methods for inferential modeling of soil carbon using visible/near-infrared spectra. Geoderma 146:14–25Google Scholar
  126. ViscarraRossel RA, Walvoort DJJ, Mcbratney AB, Janik LJ, Skjemstad JO (2006) Visible, near infrared, mid infrared or combined diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for simultaneous assessment of various soil properties. Geoderma 131:59–75Google Scholar
  127. Walpola BC, Arunakumara KKIU (2010) Effect of salt stress on decomposition of organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in animal manure amended soils. J Agric Sci 5:9–18Google Scholar
  128. Wang L, Sun X, Li S, Zhang T, Zhang W, Zhai P (2014) Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in North China: effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth. PLoS One 9:e89185. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. West TO, McBride AC (2005) The contribution of agricultural lime to carbon dioxide emissions in the United States: dissolution, transport, and net emissions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 108:145–154Google Scholar
  130. White AF (1995) Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals in soils. In: White AF, Brantley SL (eds) Chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals. The Geochemical Society, St Louis, pp 407–461Google Scholar
  131. Wichern J, Wichern F, Joergensen RG (2006) Impact of salinity on soil microbial communities and the decomposition of maize in acidic soils. Geoderma 137:100–108Google Scholar
  132. Wong VNL, Dalal RC, Greene RSB (2008) Salinity and sodicity effects on respiration and microbial biomass of soil. Biol Fertil Soils 44:943–953Google Scholar
  133. Wong VNL, Dalal RC, Greene RSB (2009) Carbon dynamics of sodic and saline soils following gypsum and organic material additions: a laboratory incubation. Appl Soil Ecol 41:29–40Google Scholar
  134. Wong VNL, Greene SB, Dalal RC, Murphy BW (2010) Soil carbon dynamics in saline and sodic soils: a review. Soil Use Manag 26:2–11Google Scholar
  135. Wu LS, Wood Y, Jiang PP, Li LQ, Pan GX, Lu JH, Chang AC, Enloe HA (2008) Carbon sequestration and dynamics of two irrigated agricultural soils in California. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:808–814Google Scholar
  136. Yuan BC, Li ZZ, Liu H, Gao M, Zhang YY (2007) Microbial biomass and activity in salt affected soils under arid conditions. Appl Soil Ecol 35:319–328Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashim Datta
    • 1
  • Raj Setia
    • 2
  • Arijit Barman
    • 1
  • Yang Guo
    • 3
  • Nirmalendu Basak
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  2. 2.Punjab Remote Sensing CentreLudhianaIndia
  3. 3.Environmental Modelling Group, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations