Development Disparity and Interstate Out-Migration in the Districts of India

  • Kalosona Paul


Migration research in India has largely focussed on interstate migration and less on migration at the district level. While employment has been the single largest factor of interstate out-migration, migration due to education is rising. Using data from the Census of India 2001, this chapter estimates the interstate out-migration rate in the districts of India. It tests the hypothesis that development disparity is positively associated with the level of interstate out-migration in the districts of India. We have used the Primary Census Abstract (PCA), D-series data and household data from the Census of India. The district is the unit of analyses. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, composite index and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression have been used in the analyses.

The interstate male out-migration rate for employment was 9 per thousand population and that of female interstate migration for marriage or accompanying the family was 7 per thousand population. Both male and female out-migration was less than 10 per thousand in more than 40% of the districts whereas it was more than 40 per one thousand in 7% of the districts. Women’s out-migration was five times higher than men due to marriage and moving with the family. The bordering districts are more prone to out-migration than developed districts/towns/cities of neighbouring states. Female work participation rate, female literacy and level of urbanization are positively associated with interstate out-migration, whereas agricultural labourers showed a negative association with the interstate out-migration rate (ISOMR). The districts under both low and high level of development had higher interstate out-migration.


India District Disparity Development Interstate out-migration 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kalosona Paul
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Development StudiesTata Institute of Social SciencesMumbaiIndia

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