Contextualising Demographic and Development Divide in Districts of India

  • Sanjay K. Mohanty
  • Udaya S. Mishra
  • Rajesh K. Chauhan


The Indian districts are perfect laboratory to understand the demographic diversity, pattern of development and test the newer hypotheses. Besides, districts are the basic administrative unit and the periodic assessment on spatial pattern of development is an essential input in national and regional planning. While data limitation is often cited for limited district-specific analyses, the data gap in many key variables is bridging over time. This chapter describes the theoretical rationale of understanding the demographic and development divide in districts of India.


  1. Aiyar, S., & Mody, A. (2012). The demographic dividends: Evidences from the Indian states (IMF Working paper, 11/38).
  2. Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Malaney, P. L. (2000). Demographic change and economic growth in Asia. Population and Development Review, 26(Suppl), 257–290.Google Scholar
  3. Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Sevilla, J. (2001). Economic growth and demographic transition (Working paper 8685).
  4. Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., & Seveilla, J. (2002). The demographic dividend: A new perspective on the economic consequence of population change (Population Matters Monograph MR-1274). RAND, Santa Monica.Google Scholar
  5. Bolt, J., Timmer, M., & van Zanden, J. L. (2014). GDP percapita since 1820. In J. L. van Zanden et al. (Eds.), How was life?: Global well-being since 1820. Paris: OECD Publishing. Scholar
  6. Chaudhuri, S., & Gupta, N. (2009). Levels of living and poverty patterns: A district-wise analysis for India. Economic and Political Weekly, 44, 94–110.Google Scholar
  7. Census. (2011). Administrative Atlas of India, Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Available at:
  8. Drèze, J., & Murthi, M. (2001). Fertility, education, and development: evidence from India. Population and development Review, 27(1), 33-63.Google Scholar
  9. Dorius, S. F. (2008). Global demographic convergence? A reconsideration of changing intercountry inequality in fertility. Population and Development Review, 34(3), 519–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drèze, J., & Murthi, M. (2001). Fertility, education, and development: Evidence from India. Population and Development Review, 27(1), 33–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fosu, A. K. (2009). Inequality and the impact of growth on poverty: Comparative evidence for sub-Saharan Africa. The Journal of Development Studies, 45(5), 726–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guilmoto, C. Z., & Rajan, S. I. (2013). Fertility at the district level in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 48(23), 59–70.Google Scholar
  13. Kalra, R., & Thakur, S. (2015). Development patterns in India: Spatial convergence or divergence? GeoJournal, 80(1), 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar, S., & Sathyanarayana, K. M. (2012). District-level estimates of fertility and implied sex ratio at birth in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 47(33), 66–72.Google Scholar
  15. Kurian, N. J. (2000). Widening regional disparities in India: Some indicators. Economic and Political Weekly, 35, 538–550.Google Scholar
  16. Lakner, C., & Milanovic, B. (2015). Global income distribution from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession. Revista de Economía Institucional, 17(32), 71–128. Available at: ​
  17. Merrick, T. W. (2002). Population and poverty: New views on an old controversy. International Family Planning Perspectives, 28(1), 41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mohanty, S. K., Fink, G., Chauhan, R., & Canning, D. (2016a). Distal determinants of fertility decline: Evidence from 640 Indian districts. Demographic Research, 34, 373–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mohanty, S. K., Govil, D., Chauhan, R. K., Kim, R., & Subramanian, S. V. (2016b). Estimates of poverty and inequality in the districts of India, 2011–2012. Journal of Development Policy and Practice, 1(2), 142–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mukherjee, S., Chakraborty, D., & Sikdar, S. (2014). Three decades of human development across Indian states: Inclusive growth or perpetual disparity? National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi “Proposed Sustainable Development Report of Indian States” (2013), Housing & Urban Affairs Division, Planning Commission.Google Scholar
  21. Office of the Registrar General of India (ORGI). (2006). Maternal mortality in India: 1997–2003 trends, causes and risk factors. New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General.Google Scholar
  22. Office of the Registrar General of India (ORGI). (2009). Compendium of India’s ferility and mortality indicators 1971–2007. New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General.Google Scholar
  23. Office of the Registrar General of India (ORGI). (2017). Sample registration system bulletin.Google Scholar
  24. Office of the Registrar General of India (ORGI). (2018). SRS based abridged life tables, 2012–2016 (Registrar General of India SRS Analytical Report). New Delhi: Registrar General of India, Government of India.Google Scholar
  25. Ohlan, R. (2013). Pattern of regional disparities in socio-economic development in India: District level analysis. Social Indicators Research, 114(3), 841–873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Planning Commission. (2014). Report of the expert group to review the methodology for measurement of poverty. New Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  27. Ram, U., Jha, P., Ram, F., Kumar, K., Awasthi, S., Shet, A., & Kumar, R. (2013). Neonatal, 1–59 months, and under-5 mortality in 597 Indian districts, 2001 to 2012: Estimates from national demographic and mortality surveys. The Lancet Global Health, 1(4), e219–e226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ravallion, M. (2014). Income inequality in the developing world. Science, 344(6186), 851–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sen, A., & Himanshu. (2004). Poverty and inequality in India: I. Economic and Political Weekly, 39, 4247–4263.Google Scholar
  30. Singh, A., Kumar, K., Pathak, P. K., Chauhan, R. K., & Banerjee, A. (2017). Spatial patterns and determinants of fertility in India. Population, 72(3), 505–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. UN. (2015). Final list of proposed sustainable development goal indicators. Retrieved from
  32. UNDP. (2015). Human development report. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Wilson, C. (2001). On the scale of global demographic convergence 1950–2000. Population and Development Review, 27(1), 155–171. Accessed on 28 July 2018. Accessed on 28th July 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjay K. Mohanty
    • 1
  • Udaya S. Mishra
    • 2
  • Rajesh K. Chauhan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Fertility StudiesInternational Institute for Population SciencesMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Development StudiesThiruvananthapuramIndia
  3. 3.Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Planning DepartmentGovernment of Uttar PradeshLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations