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Movement Disorders: Parkinson’s Disease and Essential Tremor—A General Perspective

  • Robert LeMoyne
  • Timothy Mastroianni
  • Donald Whiting
  • Nestor Tomycz
Chapter
Part of the Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation book series (SSMI, volume 31)

Abstract

Movement disorders manifesting in tremor influence the quality of life for millions of people. In particular, two prevalent types of movement disorder are Parkinson’s disease and Essential tremor. The neurological foundation for Parkinson’s disease is attributed to dysfunction of the substantia nigra and associated aspects of the basal ganglia. By contrast, Essential tremor is not conclusively defined. However, notable amplified cerebellar activity is a characteristic for Essential tremor. Traditional strategies for diagnosing the severity of Parkinson’s disease and Essential tremor apply expert clinical although subjective interpretation of ordinal scales. This ordinal scale approach is the subject of contention regarding reliability. Traditional therapy involves the prescription of medication. As a last resort, permanent disruption of the deep brain neural pathways is an alternative. Recent developments have demonstrated the utility of wearable and wireless systems for the objective and quantified measurement of tremor symptoms. Furthermore, wearable and wireless systems have been amalgamated with deep brain stimulation for the determination of therapy efficacy. Near-term future objectives implicate the opportunity for real-time patient-specific optimization of deep brain stimulation tuning parameters. These developments lead to the presence of Network Centric Therapy for the treatment of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and Essential tremor.

Keywords

Movement disorder Parkinson’s disease Essential tremor Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Conventional medical intervention Levodopa Propranolol Pallidotomy Thalamotomy Wearable and wireless systems Deep brain stimulation Network Centric Therapy 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert LeMoyne
    • 1
  • Timothy Mastroianni
    • 2
  • Donald Whiting
    • 3
  • Nestor Tomycz
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Bioengineering InnovationNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA
  2. 2.IndependentPittsburghUSA
  3. 3.Department of Neurosurgery Allegheny General HospitalAllegheny Health Network Neuroscience InstitutePittsburghUSA

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