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Growth Period (1954–1994): Maps Displaying More Information and Printed in More Standard Way

  • Liqiong Jia
  • Zhaoyu Kong
  • Xuezheng Gao
  • Hui Guo
  • Xiaolei Li
  • Chunzhen He
Open Access
Chapter

Abstract

With the rapid development of national construction and geological work, from 1953 to 1956, the state set up four Sino-Soviet cooperation regional geological survey brigades (Xinjiang 13th geological brigade, Daxing’anling geological brigade, Qinling geological brigade, and Nanling geological brigade). The General Survey Notes, compiled by Huang Jiqing and Xie Jiarong in 1954, put forward unified requirements for stratigraphic division, use of geological codes, various pattern symbols, and color marks in field mapping, thus providing scientific basis for unified representation of large-scale geological maps in China. Through Sino-Soviet cooperation and the unremitting efforts of our geological predecessors, a new situation has been opened up for the regional geological survey and geological mapping in China.

With the rapid development of national construction and geological work, from 1953 to 1956, the state set up four Sino-Soviet cooperation regional geological survey brigades (Xinjiang 13th geological brigade, Daxing’anling geological brigade, Qinling geological brigade, and Nanling geological brigade). The General Survey Notes, compiled by Huang Jiqing and Xie Jiarong in 1954, put forward unified requirements for stratigraphic division, use of geological codes, various pattern symbols, and color marks in field mapping, thus providing scientific basis for unified representation of large-scale geological maps in China. Through Sino-Soviet cooperation and the unremitting efforts of our geological predecessors, a new situation has been opened up for the regional geological survey and geological mapping in China.

During this period, China’s geological mapping has developed rapidly, and at the same time it enjoys a lot of international reputation. For example, from 1973 to 1976, the Geological Map of Asia (1:5 million), compiled by Li Tingdong, Li Chunyu, and Wang Hongzhen, and the Geological Map of the People’s Republic of China (1:4 million), compiled by Geng Shufang, caused a great sensation when they participated in the 25th International Geological Congress exhibition, which was highly praised by foreign media.

China’s geological mapping have developed to a more systematic and perfect stage. Geological map information is more rich and diverse, and the printing is more standardized. The relevant thematic studies are carried out simultaneously, such as agricultural ecological geology, environmental geology and tourism geology. The unified specific requirements of the representation method of geological maps, the shape, size, color, and structure of symbols, as well as the schema and legend, create conditions for the rapid transmission of geological information and automatic mapping.

This monochromatic drawing has been meticulously done, with such fine attention to detail that even the houses behind the trees are accurately depicted. Mt. Shirenfeng is rendered using the simple wrinkled-texture method of traditional Chinese painting. Coupled with the clouds in background, this approach makes the picture both realistic and imaginative. The drawing’s composition resembles that of a Tai Chi map, full of conflict and harmony (Fig. 4.1).
Fig. 4.1

Geomorphological sketch of Shirenfeng tungsten mine, Shixing, Guangdong Province (sheet 1) [1]

The measured layout and accurate rendition has high aesthetic quality. The vigorous lines seem dense enough to block the wind and recall the poetic thought that “The cloud wishes it were a bird” (Figs. 4.2 and 4.3).
Fig. 4.2

Geomorphological sketch of Shirenfeng tungsten mine, Shixing, Guangdong (sheet 1) [2]

Fig. 4.3

Geomorphological sketch of Shirenfeng tungsten mine, Shixing, Guangdong (sheet 2) [3]

Fig. 4.4

Diagram of a seam columnar section of Yaojie coal mine [4]

Fig. 4.5

Schematic diagram of the engineering geological map of areas south of the dam axis (river bed section) [5]

Fig. 4.6

Geological map of areas peripheral to Gaositai, Chengde, Rehe [6]

Overall, the diagram adopts a triangular format, with a strong sense of perspective. The diagram is vertical, orderly, and lively (Fig. 4.7).
Fig. 4.7

Equal area chart of the middle Jurassic stratum of Yaojie coal mine in the Minhe Basin [7]

Fig. 4.8

Agricultural utilization map of irrigated land in the Yellow River Basin [8]

Fig. 4.9

Distribution of observation stations at various levels in the Huaihe River Basin in 1954 [9]

The macroscopic geological terrain is depicted with fine, artistic lines, such that the sketch resembles an elegant landscape painting. Depicting the local landscape in an objective, detailed manner, the sketch adds dramatic effects through a background of towering mountains and streaming clouds (Fig. 4.10).
Fig. 4.10

Topographic sketch of the Ningjiahe River Dam, Shawan County [10]

Fig. 4.11

Diagram of a continuous columnar section of Tuozu iron ore mine in Butuo County [11]

Fig. 4.12

Geological profile sketch of Mt. Guaran-Mt. Yinshan [12]

Fig. 4.13

Sketch attached to final geological report on Subashi in central Mt. Huoyan, the Turpan Basin [13]

Fig. 4.14

Statistical diagrams of joints and fissures of the Tuanbaoshan lead-zinc mining area in Hanyuan County, Sichuan Province [14]

Fig. 4.15

Sectional diagram of a copper mine in the adjoining area of Yimen, Shuangbai, and Eshan counties, Yunnan Province [15]

Fig. 4.16

Topographic and geological profile of Tuozu iron ore mine in Butuo County [16]

The drawing is beautiful, with water in the foreground and mountains in the background in a movement from the dynamic to the static. The floating clouds add life to the quiet loftiness of the mountains while making the image more transparent, like a majestic perspective in oil painting. The drawing perfectly combines geology and aesthetics (Fig. 4.17).
Fig. 4.17

Perspective view of the terrain in the vicinity of Maoming oil shale field [17]

The microscopic illustrations were drawn with colored pencils and are bright and succinct (Fig. 4.18).
Fig. 4.18

Microscopic illustration attached to calculation table of a talc reserve in Fanjiapuzi [18]

The ore bodies in the diagram were drawn in orderly alignment and bright, contrasting colors. They are highlighted with geographical signs (Fig. 4.19).
Fig. 4.19

Perspective diagram of ore bodies near West Lake [19]

The diagram is drawn in complex but clear lines combined with watercolor blocks and represents an engineering geological chart of a mining area in Guangdong Province (Fig. 4.20).
Fig. 4.20

Engineering geological map of pyrite mine in Mt. Liuhuang, Yingde, Guangdong Province [20]

The creation of the 13th Sino-Soviet Geological Cooperation Brigade of Xinjiang in 1953 opened a new chapter in China’s regional geological survey activity. The geological maps produced during this period are mostly bilingual in Chinese and Russian (Figs. 4.21 and 4.22).
Fig. 4.21

Series of geological maps of the Kashi-Akesu region of Southern Mt. Tianshan, Xinjiang (1) [21]. (Source: Part of the series to geological map of the Kashi-Akesu region of Southern Mt. Tianshan, Xinjiang.)

Fig. 4.22

Series of geological maps of the Kashi-Akesu region of Southern Mt. Tianshan, Xinjiang (2) [22]. (Source: Part of the series to geological map of the Kashi-Akesu region of Southern Mt. Tianshan, Xinjiang.)

This diagram describes the core preservation in solid figure (Fig. 4.23).
Fig. 4.23

Schematic drilling diagram [23]

Lines and gouache coloring were used in the diagram, making it orderly and elegant. There is a clearly drawn legend (Fig. 4.24).
Fig. 4.24

Regional hydrological and geological map of the mining areas in the Suyukou, Yugou, and Nansi vicinities of Mt. Helan mountain [24]

In contrast to the seriousness and simplicity of other report covers, this cover is decorated with a variety of imagery, such as a phoenix and auspicious clouds. The appealing effect is one of goodwill and suggests the creative enthusiasm of hard-working geologists (Fig. 4.25).
Fig. 4.25

Mineral geology report (cover) [25]

Fig. 4.26

Cover of the report on mineral exploration in Liancheng County [26]

Fig. 4.27

Sketches of various polymetallic ore specimens from the Wujiang mining area of Leishan [27]

Fig. 4.28

Sketch of outcrop G1001 of the Dunan mining area of Leishan [28]

Fig. 4.29

Sketch of shallow well II/E1 of the lead-zinc mining area of Bangou [29]

Fig. 4.30

Sketches of the interface of J3a and J2c, among others [30]

This is China’s first tectonic map on the scale of 1:3,000,000. The map had a profound impact at home and abroad and was widely recognized by geoscientists as an epoch-making and canonic achievement in the history of Asian tectonic studies (Fig. 4.31).
Fig. 4.31

Geotectonic map of the People’s Republic of China [31]

The monochromatic map is rich in content, with clear geological signs and depicting diverse terrain (Fig. 4.32).
Fig. 4.32

Geomorphological map of the western Inner Mongolia Plateau (I-I′, II-II′ geomorphology sections) [32]

The multi-color quaternary geological map is primarily rendered in yellow and green, with a double-line frame and a latitudinal and longitudinal grid. The colors are harmonious, while the content of the map is rich (Fig. 4.33).
Fig. 4.33

Quaternary geological map of the Qaidam Basin [33]

Fig. 4.34

Illustration attached to report on a tectonic fracture system and engineering geological issues of the dam area of the Xinfengjiang River [34]

This tectonic map with internal sheet division depicts complex content with bright and contrasting colors. It was published as a print from a fair drawing (Fig. 4.35).
Fig. 4.35

Tectonic map of the Xi’an area [35]

Fig. 4.36

Comparison of reservoir units of Strata P1, P2, and Tf in the Chongqing area [36]

Fig. 4.37

Sketch of exploration ditch TQ1 at the crystal mining area of Miaogou [37]

Fig. 4.38

Sketch of a geode in a mine block of the Gongli crystal mining area, Luodian County, Guizhou Province [38]

The diagram appears three-dimensional, with distinct, vivid layers of color. It includes a complete and detailed legend and other features (Fig. 4.39).
Fig. 4.39

Geological structure projection diagram of the Yinda experimental section of Jiuquan [39]

The map was created with clear lines in elegant colors rendered using a traditional Chinese brush painting technique. The color transitions are natural and smooth (Fig. 4.40).
Fig. 4.40

Geomorphological and geological map of the Houdong mineral deposit in the Wuchuan mercury mining belt, Guizhou Province [40]

The columnar description is concise and easy to grasp (Fig. 4.41).
Fig. 4.41

Diagram of coal seam thickness variation of Pit 36 in Lanjiawan [41]

Fig. 4.42

Profile diagram of lake exploration line [42]

Fig. 4.43

Joint contour map for the report of the 1963 general survey on the Qitianling area of Hunan Province [43]

Fig. 4.44

Diagram of the composition and distribution of the diamond deposit in eastern Guizhou Province and western Hunan Province [44]

Contrasting colors were used to create an effect of color fluidity (Fig. 4.45).
Fig. 4.45

Topographic and geological map of Tongyu chrome mine in Zuoquan County, Shanxi Province [45]

Fig. 4.46

Schematic diagram of the intrusion of T1,2 and T3 in the western section of the Lingxiang rock mass, etc. [46]

Fig. 4.47

Hypothetic diagram of the development stage of volcanic subsidence of the Lujiang-Zongyang volcanic basin [47]

Fig. 4.48

Sectional axonometric drawing of engineering geology of the Fuling Road-Labor Road Overpass Project [48]

The texture is dense, orderly, and clean, with a subtle tint of color in certain areas, making the overall drawing precise and refreshing (Fig. 4.49).
Fig. 4.49

Illustrations and sketches of minerals attached to report on geological turquoise survey at Mt. Duancen, Wulan County, Qinghai Province [49]

The sketch depicts richly complex structures, with distinct blocks and neatly labeled geological elements (Fig. 4.50).
Fig. 4.50

Sketch of gallery wall of the No. 3 pegmatite vein in Wentouyingzi minefield, Fuxin County [50]

The diagram employs the perspective method to describe ore bodies (Fig. 4.51).
Fig. 4.51

Geological joint section of No. 1 deposit [51]

The balanced and harmonious, brightly colored map is divided into four parts (Fig. 4.52).
Fig. 4.52

Geochemical map of vanadium in the geochemical exploration site of an urban area of Shantou City, Guangdong Province [52]

Fig. 4.53

Engineering geological profile of district planning of Jiaojiang City, Zhejiang Province [53]

Fig. 4.54

Hydrogeological map of the Qingchengzi region in central Liaoning Province [54]

The map was drawn in optimal density with elegant colors (Fig. 4.54).

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Liqiong Jia
    • 1
  • Zhaoyu Kong
    • 1
  • Xuezheng Gao
    • 1
  • Hui Guo
    • 1
  • Xiaolei Li
    • 1
  • Chunzhen He
    • 1
  1. 1.Development and Research Center of China Geological Survey (National Geological Archives of China)BeijingP.R. China

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