Behavior of Halophytes and Their Tolerance Mechanism Under Different Abiotic Stresses

  • Asha Sharma
  • Pooja
  • Annu Devi
  • Chanchal Garg
  • Anita Kumari
  • Anita Mann
  • Ashwani Kumar


Chemical toxicity, drought, extreme temperatures, salinity, and oxidative stress, these are the abiotic stresses, and they are menace to field production and the nature of the environment. Toxic environmental conditions cause a major hazard in crops and affect the plant growth. Morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes adversely cause loss in productivity worldwide. Because of increase in stresses, the devastating global effects are observed in arable land, resulting in 30% land loss, and it may be up to 50% by the year 2050. The first approach is to increase crop production dramatically which depends on improving plant productivity under stress conditions. Halophytes could be a leading choice to meet the respective goal. Inhabiting areas for halophytic plants range from inland desert to wetland areas. To tolerate different types of stresses, halophytes have been considered better as compared to glycophytic plants. These plants have adapted themselves with the simple mechanisms like compartmentalization and accumulation of organic solutes. Under drought stress, these plants express differential response to water deficit. During drought stress, plants evolve a number of strategies including high tolerance, storage of a large amount of water, and compartmentalization of salinity in mesophyll cells.


Stress Antioxidant Salinity Environment Senescence 


  1. Aken BV (2008) Transgenic plants for phytoremediation: helping nature to clean up environmental pollution. Cell Biol 26:225–227Google Scholar
  2. Alkio M, Tabuchi TM, Wang X, Colon-Carmona A (2005) Stress responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Arabidopsis include growth inhibition and hypersensitive response-like symptoms. J Exp Bot 56:2983–2994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azevedo Neto AJ, Prisco JT, Eneas-Filho J, Braga de Abreu CE, Gomes Filho E (2006) Effects of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in leaves and root of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive maize genotypes. Environ Exp Bot 56:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ball MC, Chow WS, Anderson JM (1987) Salinity induced potassium deficiency causes loss of functional photosystem II in leaves of the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina, through depletion of atrazine-binding polypeptide. J Plant Physiol 14:351–361Google Scholar
  5. Booth WA, Beardall J (1991) Effect of salinity on inorganic carbon utilization and carbonic anhydrase activity in the halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina (Chlorophyta). Phycologia 30:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cakmak (2002) Plant nutrition research priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways. Istanbul, Turkey Plant Soil 247:3–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A, Zhu JK (2005) Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci 45:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Epstein E, Norlyn J, Rush D, Kingsbury R, Kelley D, Cunningham G, Wrona A (1980) Saline culture of crops: a genetic approach. Science 210:399–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flowers TJ, Colmer TD (2008) Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytol 179:945–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Flowers TJ, Yeo A (1995) Breeding for salinity resistance in crops plants: where next? Aust J Plant Physiol 22:875–884Google Scholar
  11. Flowers TJ, Galal HK, Bromham L (2010) Evolution of halophytes: multiple origins of salt tolerance in land plants. Funct Plant Biol 37:604–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghnaya T, Slama I, Messedi D, Grignon C, Ghorbel MH, Abdelly C (2007) Cd-induced growth reduction in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum is significantly improved by NaCl. J Plant Res 120:309–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldschmidt VM (1954) Geochemistry. Clarendon Press, Oxford, p 730Google Scholar
  15. Gupta NK, Meena SK, Gupta S, Khandelwal SK (2002) Gas exchange, membrane permeability and ion uptake in two species of Indian jujube differing in salt tolerance. Photosynthetica 40:535–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gyuricza V, Fodor F, Szigeti Z (2010) Phytotoxic effects of heavy metal contaminated soil reveal limitations of extract-based Ecotoxicological tests. Water Air Soil Pollut 210:113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayashi H, Murata N (1998) Genetically engineered enhancement of salt tolerance in higher plants. In: Sato Murata N (ed) Stress responses of photosynthetic organisms: molecular and molecular regulation. Elsevier, Ansterdam, pp 133–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hellebust JA (1976) Annu Rev Plant Physiol 27:485–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hernandez JA, Ferrer MA, Jimenez A, Barcelo AR, Sevilla F (2001) Antioxidant systems and O2/H2O2 production in the apoplast of pea leaves. Its relation with salt-induced necrotic lesions in minor veins. Plant Physiol 127:817–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hong GJ, Xue XY, Mao YB, Wang LJ, Chen XY (2012) Arabidopsis MYC2 interacts with DELLA proteins in regulating sesquiterpene synthase gene expression. Plant Cell 24:2635–2648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jammes F, Song C, Shin D, Munemasa S, Takeda K, GU D (2009) MAP kinases MPK9 and MPK12 are preferentially expressed in guard cells and positively regulate ROS-mediated ABA signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20520–20525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jithesh MN, Prashanth SR, Sivaprakash KR, Parida AK (2006) Antioxidative response mechanisms in halophytes: their role in stress defense. J Genet 85(3):237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jordan FL, Robin-Abbott M, Maier RM, Glenn EP (2002) A comparison of chelator-facilitated metal uptake by a halophyte and a glycophyte. Environ Toxicol Chem 21(12):2698–2704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Joset F, Jeanjean R, Hagemann M (1996) Dynamics of the response of cyanobacteria to salt stress: deciphering the molecular events. Physiol Plant 96:738–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ketchum REB, Warren RC, Klima LJ, Lopez-Gutierrez F, Nabors MW (1991) The mechanism and regulation of proline accumulation in suspension cultures of the halophytic grass Distichlis spicata L. J Plant Physiol 137:368–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kreps JA, Wu Y, Chang HS, Zhu T, Wang X, Harper JF (2002) Transcriptome changes for Arabidopsis in response to salt, osmotic, and cold stress. Plant Physiol 130:2129–2141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Levitt J (1980) Responses of plant to environmental stress: water, radiation, salt and other stresses. Academic Press, New York, p 365Google Scholar
  29. Lokhande VH, Srivastava S, Patade VY, Dwivedi S, Tripathi RD, Nikam TD, Suprasanna P (2011) Investigation of arsenic accumulation and tolerance potential of Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.). Chemosphere 82:529–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Marco F, Bitrian M, Carrasco P, Rajam MV, Alcazar R, Tiburcio AF (2015) Genetic engineering strategies for abiotic stress tolerance in plants. In: Bahadur B, Rajam MV, Sahijram L, Krishnmurthy KV (eds) Plant biology and biotechnology. Springer, New York, pp 579–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maris PA, Blumwald E (2007) Na+ transport in plants. FEBS Lett 581:2247–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marschner H (1986) Mineral nutrition in higher plants. Academic, London, pp 477–542Google Scholar
  33. Messedi D (2004) Limits imposed by salt to the growth of the halophytes Sesuvium portulacastrum. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 167:720–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miller G, Suzuki N, CiftciYilmaz S, Mittler R (2010) Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signaling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant Cell Environ 33(4):453–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance bringing them together. New Phytol 167:645–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pivetz BE (2001) Ground water issue: phytoremediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. EPA/540/S-01/ 500. EPA, Washington DC, p 36Google Scholar
  40. Seki M, Ishida J, Narusaka M, Fujita M, Umezawa T, Kamiya A, Nakajima M, Enju A, Sakurai T (2002) Monitoring the expression pattern of around 7000 Arabidopsis genes under ABA treatments using a full-length cDNA microarray. Funct Integr Genomics 2:282–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sharma A, Pooja, Devi A, Pawan (2016) Effect of salt stress (NaCl) on different growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and lipid peroxidation in the leaves of local cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Int J Recent Sci Res 7:14413–14419Google Scholar
  42. Shekari F (2000) Effect of drought stress on phenology, water relations, growth, yield and quality canola, doctorate thesis in the field of Agriculture. University of Tabriz. 180Google Scholar
  43. Shi H, Ishitani M, Kim C, Zhu JK (2000) The Arabidopsis thaliana salt tolerance gene SOS1 encodes a putative Na+/H+ antiporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:6896–6901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Slama I, Ghnaya T, Savoure A, Abdelly C (2008) Combined effects of long term salinity and soil drying on growth, water relations, nutrient status and proline accumulation of Sesuvium portulacastrum. C R Biol 331:442–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Slama I, Abdelly C, Bouchereau A, Flowers T, Savoure A (2015) Diversity, distribution and roles of osmoprotective compounds accumulated in halophytes under abiotic stress. Ann Bot 115(3):433–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Suprasanna P, Teixeira da Silva JA, Bapat VA (2005) Plant abiotic stress, sugars and transgenic: a perspective. In: Teixcira da Silva JA (ed) Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology: advances and topical issues. Global Science Publishers, London, pp 86–93Google Scholar
  47. Szabados L, Savoure A (2009) Proline: a multifunctinal amino acid. Trends Plant Sci 15(2):89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taji T, Seki M, Satou M, Sakurai T, Kobayashi M, Ishiyama K, Narusaka Y, Narusaka M, Zhu JK, Shinozaki K (2004) Comparative genomics in salt tolerance between Arabidopsis and Arabidopsis-related halophyte salt cress using Arabidopsis microarray. Plant Physiol 135:1697–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tennstedt P, Peisker D, Bottcher C, Trampczynska A, Clemens S (2009) Phytochelatin synthesis is essential for the detoxification of excess zinc and contributes significantly to the accumulation of zinc. Plant Physiol 149:938–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tuteja N (2007) Abscisic acid and abiotic stress signaling. Plant Signal Behav 2:135–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xing Y, Jia WS, Zhang JH (2008) AtMKK1 mediates ABA-induced CAT1 expression and H2O2 production via AtMPK6-coupled signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant J 54:440–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Xiong L, Zhu JK (2003) Regulation of abscisic acid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 133:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yadav SK (2010) Heavy metal toxicity in plants: an overview on the role of glutathione and phytochelatins in heavy metal stress tolerance of plants. S Afr J Bot 76:167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zabłudowska E, Kowalska J, Jedynak L, Wojas S, Skłodowska A, Antosiewicz DM (2009) Search for a plant for phytoremediation – what can we learn from field and hydroponic studies? Chemosphere 77:501–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:247–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asha Sharma
    • 1
  • Pooja
    • 1
  • Annu Devi
    • 1
  • Chanchal Garg
    • 2
  • Anita Kumari
    • 3
  • Anita Mann
    • 4
  • Ashwani Kumar
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BotanyMaharishi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyBaba Masthnath UniversityRohtakIndia
  3. 3.Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  4. 4.ICAR – Central Soil Salinity Research InstituteKarnalIndia

Personalised recommendations