Biotechnological Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Their Composites as Anti-microbials Agents

  • Sanjay K. S. Patel
  • Kumar Sandeep
  • Mamtesh Singh
  • Gajendra P. Singh
  • Jung-Kul Lee
  • Shashi K. Bhatia
  • Vipin C. Kalia


Bio-polymers are widely synthesized by living organisms to assist several biological functions. Bacterial biopolymers are produced as a polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form intracellular cellular storage material under the nutrient limiting or stress conditions in the excess of carbon source and recognized as a suitable alternative to petrochemical-based synthetic plastic due to their biodegradable and eco-friendly nature. Primarily, the synthesis of PHA is considered as costly process due to the high price of feed and its poor grade of thermal and mechanical properties of homopolymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate. The modification of PHA through chemical or biological synthesis and as composite materials through the incorporation of nanoparticles or other substrate and materials seems viable approaches to improve the properties of PHA for the novel application in the area of biomedical applications including anti-microbial agents. In this book chapter, we are evaluating the potential application of PHA, derivatives of PHA and modified with composite materials as anti-microbial agents.


Antimicrobials Biocontrol Biodegration Biopolymers Composite materials Polyhydroxyalkanoates 


  1. Abdalkarim SYH, Yu HY, Wang D, Yao J (2017) Electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/cellulose reinforced nanofibrous membranes with ZnO nanocrystals for antibacterial wound dressings. Cellulose 24:2925–2938. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen AD, Daley P, Ayorinde FO, Gugssa A, Anderson WA, Eribo BE (2012) Characterization of medium chain length (R)-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids produced by Streptomyces sp. JM3 and the evaluation of their antimicrobial properties. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:2791–2800. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anwar MZ, Kim DJ, Kumar A, Patel SKS, Otari S, Mardina P, Jeong JH, Sohn JH, Kim JH, Park JT, Lee JK (2017) SnO2 hollow nanotubes: a novel and efficient support matrix for enzyme immobilization. Sci Rep 7:15333. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhatia SK, Shim Y-H, Jeon J-M, Brigham CJ, Kim Y-H, Kim H-J, Seo H-M, Lee J-H, Kim J-H, Yi D-H, Lee YK, Yang Y-H (2015) Starch based polyhydroxybutyrate production in engineered Escherichia coli. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 38:1479–1484. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhatia SK, Bhatia RK, Yang Y-H (2016) Biosynthesis of polyesters and polyamide building blocks using microbial fermentation and biotransformation. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 15:639–663. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhatia SK, Kim J-H, Kim M-S, Kim J, Hong JW, Hong YG, Kim H-J, Jeon J-M, Kim S-H, Ahn J, Lee H, Yang Y-H (2018) Production of (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) copolymer from coffee waste oil using engineered Ralstonia eutropha. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 41:229–235. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Castro-Mayorga JL, Martinez-Abad A, Fabra MJ, Olivera C, Reis M, Lagaron JM (2014) Stabilization of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by apolyhydroxyalkanoate obtained from mixed bacterial culture. Int J Biol Macromol 71:103–110. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Castro-Mayorga JL, Fabra MJ, Pourrahimi AM, Olsson RT, Lagaron JM (2017a) The impact of zinc oxide particle morphology as an antimicrobial and when incorporated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) film for food packaging and food contact surfaces applications. Food Bioprod Process 101:32–44. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castro-Mayorga JL, Fabra MJ, Cabedo L, Lagaron JM (2017b) On the use of the electrospinning coating technique to produce antimicrobial polyhydroxyalkanoate materials containing in situ-stabilized silver nanoparticles. Nanomaterials 7(4).
  10. Castro-Mayorga JL, Randazzo W, Fabra MJ, Lagaron JM, Aznar R, Sanchez G (2017c) Antiviral properties of silver nanoparticles against norovirus surrogates and their efficacy in coated polyhydroxyalkanoates systems. LWT-Food Sci Technol 79:503–510. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castro-Mayorga JL, Freitas F, Reis MAM, Prieto MA, Lagaron JM (2018a) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and polyhydroxybutyrate nanocomposites of interest in antimicrobial applications. Int J Biol Macromol 108:426–435. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Castro-Mayorga JL, Rovira MJF, Mas LC, Moragas GS, Cabello JML (2018b) Antimicrobial nanocomposites and electrospun coatings based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and copper oxide nanoparticles for active packaging and coating applications. J Appl Polym Sci 135:45673. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cerqueira MA, Fabra MJ, Castro-Mayorga JL, Bourbon AI, Pastrana LM, Vicente AA, Lagaron JM (2016) Use of electrospinning to develop antimicrobial biodegradable multilayer systems: encapsulation of cinnamaldehyde and their physicochemical characterization. Food Bioprocess Technol 9:1874–1884. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chung MG, Kim HW, Kim BR, Kim YB, Rhee YH (2012) Biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) grafted with vinylimidazole. Int J Biol Macromol 50:310–316. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Defoirdt T, Boon N, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W, Bossier P (2009) Short-chain fatty acids and poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates: (new) biocontrol agents for a sustainable animal production. Biotechnol Adv 27:680–685. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Diez-Pascual AM, Diez-Vicente AL (2014) ZnO-reinforced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bionanocomposites with antimicrobial function for food packaging. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:9822–9834. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Diez-Pascual AM, Diez-Vicente AL (2016) Electrospun fibers of chitosan-grafted polycaprolactone/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) blends. J Mater Chem B 4:600–612. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gao H, Li J, Sivakumar D, Kim T-S, Patel SKS, Kalia VC, Kim I-W, Zhang Y-W, Lee J-K (2019) NADH oxidase from lactobacillus reuteri: a versatile enzyme for oxidized cofactor regeneration. Int J Biol Macromol 123:629–636. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hema R, Ng PN, Amirul AA (2013) Green nanobiocomposite: reinforcement effect of montmorillonite clays on physical and biological advancement of various polyhydroxyalkanoates. Polym Bull 70:755–771. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jendrossek D, Handrick R (2002) Microbial degradation of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Annu Rev Microbiol 56:403–432. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kalia VC (2013) Quorum sensing inhibitors: an overview. Biotechnol Adv 31:224–245. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalia VC (2014) Microbes, antimicrobials and resistance: the battle goes on. Indian J Microbiol 54:1–2. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalia VC, Purohit HJ (2008) Microbial diversity and genomics in aid of bioenergy. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35:403–419. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kalia VC, Purohit HJ (2011) Quenching the quorum sensing system: potential antibacterial drug targets. Crit Rev Microbiol 37:121–140. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kalia VC, Chauhan A, Bhattacharyya G, Rashmi (2003) Genomic databases yield novel bioplastic producers. Nat Biotechnol 21:845–846. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kalia VC, Lal S, Cheema S (2007) Insight in to the phylogeny of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis: horizontal gene transfer. Gene 389:19–26. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kalia VC, Prakash J, Koul S (2016) Biorefinery for glycerol rich biodiesel industry waste. Indian J Microbiol 54:262–267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kalia VC, Prakash J, Koul S, Ray S (2017) Simple and rapid method for detecting biofilm forming bacteria. Indian J Microbiol 57:109–111. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kalia VC, Patel SKS, Kang YC, Lee JK (2019) Quorum sensing inhibitors as antipathogens: biotechnological applications. Biotechnol. Adv. 37:68–90. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kehail AA, Brigham CJ (2018) Anti-biofilm activity of solvent-cast and electrospun polyhydroxyalkanoate membranes treated with lysozyme. J Polym Environ 26:66–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim T-S, Patel SKS, Selvaraj C, Jung W-S, Pan C-H, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2016) A highly efficient sorbitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter oxydans G624 and improvement of its stability through immobilization. Sci Rep 6:33438. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kiran GS, Lipton AN, Priyadharshini S, Anitha K, Suárez LEC, Arasu MV, Choi KC, Selvin J, Al-Dhabi NA (2014) Antiadhesive activity of poly-hydroxy butyrate biopolymer from a marine Brevibacterium casei MSI04 against shrimp pathogenic vibrios. Microb Cell Factories 13:114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kiran GS, Jackson SA, Priyadharsini S, Dobson ADW, Selvin J (2017) Synthesis of Nm-PHB (nanomelanin-polyhydroxybutyrate) nanocomposite film and its protective effect against biofilmforming multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Sci Rep 7:9167. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Koul S, Prakash J, Mishra A, Kalia VC (2016) Potential emergence of multi-quorum sensing inhibitor resistant (MQSIR) bacteria. Indian J Microbiol 56:1–18. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Kumar T, Singh M, Purohit HJ, Kalia VC (2009) Potential of Bacillus sp. to produce polyhydroxybutyrate from biowaste. J Appl Microbiol 106:2017–2023. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kumar P, Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2013) Extending the limits of Bacillus for novel biotechnological applications. Biotechnol Adv 31:1543–1561. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumar P, Singh M, Mehariya S, Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2014) Ecobiotechnological approach for exploiting the abilities of Bacillus to produce co-polymer of polyhydroxyalkanoate. Indian J Microbiol 54:151–157. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kumar P, Mehariya S, Ray S, Mishra A, Kalia VC (2015a) Biotechnology in aid of biodiesel industry effluent (glycerol): biofuels and bioplastics. In: Kalia VC (ed) Microbial factories. Springer, New Delhi, pp 105–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar P, Ray S, Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2015b) Bioconversion of crude glycerol to polyhydroxyalkanoate by Bacillus thuringiensis under non-limiting nitrogen conditions. Int J Biol Macromol 78:9–16. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kumar P, Sharma R, Ray S, Mehariya S, Patel SKS, Lee J-K, Kalia VC (2015c) Dark fermentative bioconversion of glycerol to hydrogen by Bacillus thuringiensis. Bioresour Technol 182:383–388. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kumar P, Koul S, Patel SKS et al (2015d) Heterologous expression of quorum sensing inhibitory genes in diverse organisms. In: Kalia VC (ed) Quorum sensing vs quorum quenching: a battle with no end in sight. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 343–356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kumar P, Ray S, Kalia VC (2016) Production of co-polymers of polyhydroxyalkanoates by regulating the hydrolysis of biowastes. Bioresour Technol 200:413–419. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kumar A, Kim I-W, Patel SKS, Lee J-K (2018a) Synthesis of protein-inorganic nanohybrids with improved catalytic properties using Co3(PO4)2. Indian J Microbiol 58:100–104. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumar A, Patel SKS, Mardan B, Pagolu R, Lestari R, Jeong S-H, Kim T, Haw JR, Lim S-Y, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2018b) Immobilization of xylanase using a protein-inorganic hybrid system. J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:638–644. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kumar A, Park GD, Patel SKS, Kondaveeti S, Otari S, Anwar MZ, Kalia VC, Singh Y, Kim SC, Cho B-K, Sohn J-H, Kim D-R, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2018c) SiO microparticles with carbon nanotube-derived mesopores as an efficient support for enzyme immobilization. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leja K, Lewandowicz G (2010) Polymer biodegradation and biodegradable polymers – a review. Pol J Environ Stud 19:255–266. Google Scholar
  47. Mardina P, Li J, Patel SKS, Kim I-W, Lee J-K, Selvaraj C (2016) Potential of immobilized whole-cell Methylocella tundrae as a biocatalyst for methanol production from methane. J Microbiol Biotechnol 26:1234–1241. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Narayanan A, Neera, Mallesha, Ramana KV (2013) Synergized antimicrobial activity of eugenol incorporated polyhydroxybutyrate films against food spoilage microorganisms in conjunction with pediocin. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 170:1379–1388. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Otari SV, Patel SKS, Jeong JH, Lee JH, Lee J-K (2016) A green chemistry approach for synthesizing thermostable antimicrobial peptide-coated gold nanoparticles immobilized in an alginate biohydrogel. RSC Adv 6:86808–86816. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Otari SV, Kumar M, Anwar MZ, Thorat ND, Patel SKS, Lee D, Lee JH, Lee J-K, Kang YC, Zhang L (2017a) Rapid synthesis and decoration of reduced graphene oxide with gold nanoparticles by thermostable peptides for memory device and photothermal applications. Sci Rep 7:10980. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Otari SV, Pawar SH, Patel SKS, Singh RK, Kim S-Y, Lee J-H, Zhang L, Lee J-K (2017b) Canna edulis leaf extract-mediated preparation of stabilized silver nanoparticles: characterization, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity studies. J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:731–738. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Otari SV, Patel SKS, Kim S-Y, Haw JR, Kalia VC, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2018) Copper ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for the immobilization of enzyme. Indian J Microbiol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Patel SKS, Kalia VC (2013) Integrative biological hydrogen production: an overview. Indian J Microbiol 53:3–10. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Patel SKS, Purohit HJ, Kalia VC (2010) Dark fermentative hydrogen production by defined mixed microbial cultures immobilized on ligno-cellulosic waste materials. Int J Hydrog Energy 35:10674–10681. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Patel SKS, Singh M, Kalia VC (2011) Hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate producing abilities of Bacillus spp. from glucose in two stage system. Indian J Microbiol 51:418–423. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Patel SKS, Kumar P, Kalia VC (2012a) Enhancing biological hydrogen production through complementary microbial metabolisms. Int J Hydrog Energy 37:10590–10603. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Patel SKS, Singh M, Kumar P, Purohit HJ, Kalia VC (2012b) Exploitation of defined bacterial cultures for production of hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate from pea-shells. Biomass Bioenergy 36:218–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Patel SKS, Kumar P, Mehariya S, Purohit HJ, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2014a) Enhancement in hydrogen production by co-cultures of Bacillus and Enterobacter. Int J Hydrog Energy 39:14663–14668. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Patel SKS, Kalia VC, Choi JH, Haw JR, Kim IW, Lee JK (2014b) Immobilization of laccase on SiO2 nanocarriers improves its stability and reusability. J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:639–647. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Patel SKS, Kumar P, Singh S, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2015a) Integrative approach for hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate production. In: Kalia VC (ed) Microbial factories: waste treatment. Springer, New Delhi, pp 73–85. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Patel SKS, Kumar P, Singh S, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2015b) Integrative approach to produce hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate from biowaste using defined bacterial cultures. Bioresour Technol 176:136–141. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Patel SKS, Choi SH, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2016a) Large-scale aerosol-assisted synthesis of biofriendly Fe2O3 yolk-shell particles: a promising support for enzyme immobilization. Nanoscale 8:6728–6738. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Patel SKS, Jeong J-H, Mehariya S, Otari SV, Madan B, Haw JR, Lee J-K, Zhang L, Kim I-W (2016b) Production of methanol from methane by encapsulated Methylosinus sporium. J Microbiol Biotechnol 26:2098–2105. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Patel SKS, Mardina P, Kim D, Kim S-Y, Kalia VC, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2016c) Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas. Bioresour Technol 218:202–208. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Patel SKS, Mardina P, Kim S-Y, Lee J-K, Kim I-W (2016d) Biological methanol production by a type II methanotroph Methylocystis bryophila. J Microbiol Biotechnol 26:717–724. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Patel SKS, Selvaraj C, Mardina P, Jeong J-H, Kalia VC, Kang Y-C, Lee J-K (2016e) Enhancement of methanol production from synthetic gas mixture by Methylosinus sporium through covalent immobilization. Appl Energy 171:383–391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2016f) Integrative approach for producing hydrogen and polyhydroxyalkanoate from mixed wastes of biological origin. Indian J Microbiol 56:293–300. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Patel SKS, Otari SV, Kang YC, Lee JK (2017a) Protein-inorganic hybrid system for efficient his-tagged enzymes immobilization and its application in L-xylulose production. RSC Adv 7:3488–3494. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Patel SKS, Singh R, Kumar A, Jeong JH, Jeong SH, Kalia VC, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2017b) Biological methanol production by immobilized Methylocella tundrae using simulated biohythane as a feed. Bioresour Technol 241:922–927. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2017c) Dark-fermentative biological hydrogen production from mixed biowastes using defined mixed cultures. Indian J Microbiol 57:171–176. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Patel SKS, Choi SH, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2017d) Eco-friendly composite of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide particles for efficient enzyme immobilization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:2213–2222. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2018a) Nanoparticles in biological hydrogen production: an overview. Indian J Microbiol 58:8–18. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Patel SKS, Anwar MZ, Kumar A, Otari SV, Pagolu RT, Kim S-Y, Kim I-W, Lee J-K (2018b) Fe2O3 yolk-shel particle-based laccase biosensor for efficient detection of 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. Biochem Eng J 132:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Patel SKS, Kondaveeti S, Otari SV, Pagolu RT, Jeong SH, Kim SC, Cho BK, Kang YC, Lee JK (2018c) Repeated batch methanol production from a simulated biogas mixture using immobilized Methylocystis bryophila. Energy 145:477–485. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Patel SKS, Kumar V, Mardina P, Li J, Lestari R, Kalia VC, Lee J-K (2018d) Methanol peoduction from simulated biogas mixtures by co-immobilized Methylomonas methanica and Methylocella tundrae. Bioresour Technol 263:25–32. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Patel SKS, Otari SV, Li J, Kim DR, Kim SC, Cho B-K, Kalia VC, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2018e) Synthesis of cross-linked protein-metal hybrid nanoflowers and its application in repeated batch decolorization of synthetic dyes. J Harad Mater 347:442–450. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Patel SKS, Kim JH, Kalia VC, Lee JK (2018f) Antimicrobial ativity of amino-derivatized cationic polysaccharides. Indian J Microbiol. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Patel SKS, Lee JK, Kalia VC (2018g) Beyond the theoretical yields of dark-fermentative biohydrogen. Indian J Microbiol 58:529–530. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Porwal S, Kumar T, Lal S, Rani A, Kumar S, Cheema S, Purohit HJ, Sharma R, Patel SKS, Kalia VC (2008) Hydrogen and polyhydroxybutyrate producing abilities of microbes from diverse habitats by dark fermentative process. Bioresour Technol 99:5444–5451. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Prakash J, Gupta RK, Priyanka XX, Kalia VC (2018a) Bioprocessing of biodiesel industry effluent by immobilized bacteria to produce value-added products. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 185:179–190. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Prakash J, Sharma R, Patel SKS, Kim IW, Kalia VC (2018b) Bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of domestic wastewater and biodiesel industry effluent. PLoS One 13:e0199059. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Radivojevic J, Skaro S, Senerovic L, Vasiljevic B, Guzik M, Kenny ST, Maslak V, Nikodinovic-Runic J, O’Connor KE (2016) Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and its derivatives as a platform of bioactive compounds. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:161–172. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Ramachandran P, Jagtap SS, Patel SKS, Li J, Kang YC, Lee J-K (2016) Role of the non-conserved amino acid asparagine 285 in the glycone-binding pocket of Neosartorya fischeri β-glucosidase. RSC Adv 6:48137–48144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ray S, Kalia VC (2016) Microbial co-metabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate co-polymers. Indian J Microbiol 57:39–47. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ray S, Kalia VC (2017a) Biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Indian J Microbiol 57:261–269. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ray S, Kalia VC (2017b) Co-metabolism of substrates by Bacillus thuringiensis regulates polyhydroxyalkanoate co-polymer composition. Bioresour Technol 224:743–747. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ray S, Kalia VC (2017c) Polyhydroxyalkanoate production and degradation patterns in Bacillus species. Indian J Microbiol 57:387–392. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ray S, Sharma R, Kalia VC (2018) Co-utilization of crude glycerol and biowaste for producing polyhydroxyalkanoates. Indian J Microbiol 58:33–38. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Reddy CSK, Ghai R, Rashmi KVC (2003) Polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview. Bioresour Technol 87:137–146. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rehm BHA (2010) Bacterial polymers: biosynthesis, modifications and applications. Nat Rev Microbiol 8:578–592. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rennukka M, Sipaut CS, Amirul AA (2014) Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)/chitosan/silver nanocomposite material with enhanced antimicrobial activity. Biotechnol Prog 30:1469–1479. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rodriguez-Contreras A, Garcia Y, Manero JM, Ruperez E (2017) Antibacterial PHAs coating for titanium implants. Eur Polym J 90:66–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Selvaraj C, Krishnasamy G, Jagtap SS, Patel SKS, Dhiman SS, Kim T-S, Singh SK, Lee J-K (2016) Structural insights into the binding mode of D-sorbitol with sorbitol dehydrogenase using QM-polarized ligand docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Biochem Eng J 114:244–256. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Singh M, Patel SKS, Kalia VC (2009) Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates. Microb Cell Factories 8:38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Singh M, Kumar P, Patel SKS, Kalia VC (2013) Production of polyhydroxyalkanoate co-polymer by Bacillus thuringiensis. Indian J Microbiol 53:77–83. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Singh M, Kumar P, Ray S, Kalia VC (2015) Challenges and opportunities for the customizing polyhydroxyalkanoates. Indian J Microbiol 55:235–249. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Van Immerseel F, De Buck J, Pasmans F, Velge P, Bottrew E, Fievez V, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R (2003) Invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in avian intestinal epithelial cells in vitro is influenced by short-chain fatty acids. Int J Food Microbiol 85:237–248. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Van Immerseel F, Russell JB, Flythe MD, Gantois I, Timbermont L, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R (2006) The use of organic acids to combat Salmonella in poultry: a mechanistic explanation of the efficacy. Avian Pathol 35:182–188. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Xavier JR, Babusha ST, George J, Ramana KV (2015) Material properties and antimicrobial activity of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films incorporated with vanillin. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 176:1498–1510. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang J, Shishatskaya EI, Volova TG, da Silva LF, Chen GQ (2018) Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) for therapeutic applications. Mater Sci Eng C 86:144–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjay K. S. Patel
    • 1
  • Kumar Sandeep
    • 2
  • Mamtesh Singh
    • 3
  • Gajendra P. Singh
    • 4
  • Jung-Kul Lee
    • 1
  • Shashi K. Bhatia
    • 5
  • Vipin C. Kalia
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer HospitalAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyGargi College, University of DelhiDelhiIndia
  4. 4.Mathematical Sciences and Interdisciplinary Research Lab (MathSciIntR-Lab), School of Computational and Integrative SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Department of Biological EngineeringCollege of Engineering, Konkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations